The Dreaming Universe

Fred Wolfs Approach on Jungian and Freudian Thought

Dreams appear to break free of space and time limitations. Since the beginning of recorded history, humanity has examined the nature of dreams due to their influence upon waking life. For instance Wolfgang Pauli, who was working towards a theory that would overlap quantum physics and psychology, which was revealed to him by dream images. The holographic model of consciousness and certain concepts from quantum physics has also revealed a great deal of insight towards the mind-body problem. Nonetheless, although dreams had been investigated for thousands of years, Sigmund Freud was most likely the first western researcher that scientifically analysed dreams. Prior to his work, most medical professionals perceive dreams to be hallucinations, which were essentially useless. In contrast to this, Freuds model of dreams stated that they were expressions of the unconscious that had become repressed during early childhood,, after the child expressed wishes that remain unfulfilled. Wishes and desires were therefore strongly represented in dreams and represented yearnings that appeared during the four critical states of growth (oral, anal, phallic and genital). It was Freuds hope that he would be able to identify his clients repressed or buried wishes. Thus images were viewed at the disguised representations of the forbidden desires of the individual. Such a disguise was necessary so that the dreamer would not awaken, thus placing sleep as the primary state of consciousness that vital to human life. In Freuds model of the unconscious, two basic drives or instincts were recognized, which are aggression and eroticism. By 1923, he had replaced them with life and death drives. These drives were in turn attributable to the compulsion to repeat, in regards to habits and repeated patterns. In summary, the ego corresponds to the sense of self that is experienced. Just as Freud offered a structure of the psyche based on mechanism, Jung went further and indicated that the structure had to include meaningful relationships other than those that are time-ordered and cause-effect related. It was Jungs perspective that Freud placed too much emphasis on the erotic element of dreams. He also considered that wish fulfilment was far too small to underlie or be the cause of all dreams. Whereas Freud believed that sleep was the cause and dreams were the inevitable consequence, Jung believed that dreams were primary and seep was a sufficient alteration of consciousness to allow dreams to take place. Jungs model for instance places significant value on the process of individuation, which is a personal development wherein a connection between the centre of the psyche and the ego, the central part of consciousness, occurs. Dreams to him were also a map of possibility. Within the dream state, the observer is not localised to one region of the brain. The observer is distributed throughout the brain, picking up information from several memory locations simultaneously. The quantum wave in the brain is dependent upon all of the possible locations of the observer in order for memory recall in one location to be instantly correlated with other locations, giving rise to meaningful overlaps of that which is usually separated memories.

“Our minds operate mostly unconsciously.”

Freud originally discovered that human beings appear to perform tasks unconsciously. Dreams also appear to operate unconsciously. According to the work of Benjamin Libet, a neurophysiologist, the mind mostly operates unconsciously. In essence, this means, that decisions and responses to sensations are made from the outside world on an entirely unconscious basis. Human beings only become conscious of the phenomenal world approximately half a second later. Interestingly, we refer the late moment of conscious awareness back in time to the moment of sensation and out in space to the location of stimulus, even if it is outside our bodies. This is otherwise known as temporal referral and the latter is known as special referral. For instance, if the brain of a subject is stimulated in a particular area of the cortex, if the individual will feel sensations in the body. The mechanisms by which visual images are reconstructed are located within the brains, neural networks and retinas. In a similar manner, human beings reconstruct from sounds through the vibration of the eardrums and the approximate location of the sound source in space. Libets experiments showed that one might expect a certain amount of delay between the timing of conscious awareness of events, assuming that such awareness can be mapped in time and the time when a stimulus is applied. Libet referred to his theory of consciousness as time-on theory or subjective referral in time. His data showed that an individual, although able to react swiftly to stimuli within a hundred thousandth of a second (one hundred miliseconds) is not actually aware of what the individual is reacting to for several hundred milliseconds, up to a full half second. Yet, when interrogated in regards to the time of awareness, the individual responds as if he or she were aware at the time of the stimulus. His model portrayed that unconscious processes are far more important in our lives that previously imagined. Consequently, a large amount of experience of the phenomenal world is projected from the subjective inner worlds. To grasp Libets findings entirely though, it is necessary to carefully examine the form of the signal as it is detected on the somatosensory cortex. One discovers that it consists of four distinct time zones. The first time zone of the signal is a sharp electrically positive potential that arrives 15ms after the skin stimulus and persists for around 35ms. Libet believed that this pulse served as a time marker, a referral signal for apparent conscious awareness. This is quickly followed by a deep, wide negative potential that persists for around 100ms. Thirdly a low positive hump can be found lasting for around 150 to 200ms, followed fourthly by a shallow negative potential lasting for around 200 to 250ms. All together, the sum of intervals, composes the complex signal that lasts for around 500ms. Conclusively, Libet also showed that there is no conscious sensation of this until the full five hundred millisecond period of the total signal has passed. In other terms, the brain requires to have all of this signal passing into the somatosensory cortex before any awareness of the skin stimulation is consciously felt. If for any reason, certain parts of the signal are blocked, the individual will not be aware of the skin stimulus. In fact, Libet has shown that the S1 response is not even necessary for awareness. When the cortical surface is stimulated, it was found that individuals became aware even though no S1 response was present, thus no one is aware of any stimuli until 500ms have passed.

Purpose of REM

During the day, human beings take in an exponential amount of data. Numerous amount of the input to the brain are of the type described by the neural networks, partial memories that evoke full memories. A certain amount of these inputs, however, eventually cause the interneural connections, via the synapses, to overload. When REM sleep is entered, the dreams are the products of neurons feeding back on themselves without stimuli coming in through the senses. As such, they are negative feedback loops, weakening the strengths of some of the connections with other neurons, similar to the negative weight biasing in the computer networks used by Hopfield et al. Thus, the dreams can turn into erasure modes, helping the individual to become refreshed by making desired or important for survival memories equally accessible and ridding us of undesirable, bizarre memories, those that do not play any role in survival. A major objection is found in experimental studies of individual that are deprived of REM sleep for numerous nights, usually up to one week, one would expect according to theoretical evidence that these individual would exhibit increased periods of fantasy and imagination, possibly even hallucinations. This is because the ‘unlearning’ throughout the night has not taken place and the unwanted memories would not be erased. Although there is some evidence for this, however, the general opinion of researchers is that when human beings or animals are deprived of REM sleep, their behaviour is not affected in any obvious or predictable manner. Waking a dreamer at the onset of REM tends to after several nights produce a rebound effect. It becomes more and more difficult to accomplish. By the end of a weeks deprivation of sleep, the individual enters REM states around fifty times night, suggesting that in these cases the individual may be ‘snatching’ periods of REM during the waking hours. Drug-inducted suppression of sleep is not much better since the medication is known to produce countless side-effects that could mask the result.
It should be noted that certain animals, although they possess larger brains, do not experience REM sleep. Hence, the relatively larger brains of these animals is connected to their lack of REM sleep, as they would require a larger neural network to absorb unwanted associations. This would tend to minimize overlaps in the networks of these animals.

Dreamtime

‘Aborigines believed in two forms of time. Two parallel streams of activity. One is the daily objective reality to which you and I are confined. The other is an infinite spiritual cycle called the dreamtime, more real that reality itself. Whatever happens in the dreamtime establishes the values, symbols and laws of the Aboriginal society. Some people of unusual spiritual powers have contact with the dreamtime.’ In modern times, the aboriginal outlook is still shaped by the dreaming, as it may. Yet, the relationship between dreaming and life remains a problem. Firstly, dreaming must be considered a phenomenon. It is that which is. According to the Puntupi tribes of central Australia, it is a framework for human behaviour. It is a projection into a symbolic space of social processes and it must be related to individuals lives. For the Pintupi, it must also be related to something that transcends everyday life. Dreaming can also be presumed to transcend the space-time of the immediate. The landscape is viewed as tracks of the totemic animal spirits that once walked the earth and by becoming stone themselves, they became the earth. Just as everyday animals leave their tracks ob the ground, these totemic beings leave theirs. In addition, this can be related to the concept of solipsism. In the book, The Secret of Dreaming, Jim Poulter shares a story, which is in actuality a dreamtime recounting of evolution, yet this time evolution has a purpose that transcends mere survival, for each individual dreams of something beyond itself. Poulter believed that this capacity to see beyond oneself, to see into the future, to imagine possibilities that do not seem to exist in the immediate environment, is a unique facette of consciousness. The Spirit constructs existence through this ability in order to go beyond what is to what could be. In other terms, to dream. The reason behind this for Poulter lies in responsibility. The crucial aboriginal concept is the belief that the Big Dream continues, as humanity is awakening to a greater sense of care and responsibility for the future. All humans et to be are waiting in the dreamtime for their births. The astral dimension, as it is also called. Gradually, as evolution proceeds, the responsibility will become clearer that all mankind is a part of a bigger dream of a larger spirit and that the care-taking of ones fellow man should become a necessitated priority. The development of the fetus is a microcosm of the development of the universe itself. It is stated that the fetus goes through every state of life, beginning with the single-celled animal, passing through the final state, complete with gills, all the way up th the present human form. The dreamtime therefore also represents a step towards the meaning of matter. It is to communicate all possibilities to all existences in order for the collective consciousness to attain a higher degree of self-awareness and realisation.

Telepathy

Certain definitions of consciousness are restricted to waking perception processing. Hobson perceived that consciousness is a kind of awareness that may not be only awareness of the outside world but also its representation in the brain. If so, the dream consciousness is definitely an altered state of consciousness. With quantum physics as a metaphorical basis, an insight into the timeless nature of dreams can be gained. Nearly entirely unconscious, the processes of the ID include mental forms that have never been observed as well as memories that have been repressed. These memories unlike the unobserved mental forms, influence the mental and physical life of the individual. It should be noted that during REM periods, the EEG pattern is similar to the waking state pattern. Evidence towards psychic phenomena often involves information that is normally received or experienced in one state of consciousness being made available when the recipient was in another. For instance, the dreamer would become aware of events occurring in waking life. Montague Ullman and others regarded telepathic dreams and the role of dreams in the interconnectedness of the species. Telepathic dreams include dreams of prophecy, links between a dream and an individual in waking life, dreams that connect one dreamer with another, and dreams in which an awake individual attempts to send images to a dreamer. Ullman pointed out that the precognitive dreams are distinguished from telepathic dreams and that even though both are paranormal, telepathy normally refers only to paranormal contact between ones mind and other minds present or past but not future. He also explained that most paranormal dreams are precognitive rather than telepathic. Consistent with the possibility for quantum waves to travel forward, backward and sideways in time. Ordinary or non-telepathic dreams differ from telepathic dreams in only one way. The data that is correlated during the dream. Ordinary dreams usually correlate the days remembered experience with past associations or future expectations contained as memories. They can also introduce anti-correlations as a mechanism to wipe associations or memories that do not serve the survival or the individual or the species. Telepathic dreams are quite different in that they tend to correlate feelings and emotions with space-time events. Closely connected to telepathic dreams is the related issue as theorized by Montague Ullman that dreams serve to help the human species survive with survival of the individual as a secondary but necessary issue.

Relationship Between Dreams And The Physical Body

Implicit in the holographic model is the notion that we sense as out there in the physical world is not as it seems at all. It is reminiscent of the Buddhist idea of impermanence. Nothing within the phenomenal world appears to be permanent or fixed. All remains to be in a state of flux. Solid objects are not really solid at all, they only appear to be such to the human senses. Thus, everything that is sensed is only a passing instance, a glimpse of reality. Virtual images are created as illusions of objects. The light that would be seen, when the virtual image that appears is viewed, which is coming from the image, when it in actuality it is not. Von Franz stated that ‘Whenever the human mind confronts an unknown, it invents symbolic models, drawing on preconscious process of projection. In the history of mankind, we therefore find numerous symbolic representation of the unus mundus. This one world as a continuum consisting of images, as a geometrical continuum or as a numerical structured system. With Einsteins general theory of relativity, mass becomes part of space-time and is unified with energy through the famous equation E=MC2. The idea is to see all of physics as a geometrical continuum, paralleling Jung’s one world concept. So far, science has attempted to look at all processes in the universe in a rational manner has failed to grasp how the material universe could be affected by the processes that resist measurement based on space, time and mass. Yet, it is clearly visible that human behaviour is often determined by the images carried by the individual consciousness. Thus, a body’s symptoms are not to be dealt with purely mechanically similar to pathologies. Instead, symptoms are potentially meaningful and purposeful conditions signalling a phase of life or in order to bring one closer to the centre of existence. Mindell concluded from his patients illness that the condition could be an expression of emotion, which is how the dreambody was developed. It is both a dream and a body. Mindell also states that he not once found a case, in which the individuals dreams did not reflect the body’s symptoms. The dreambody can be related to the physical body in much the same way that the quantum wave function that gives the probability of a particle’s state can be related to the particle’s physical state.

Non-Ordinary Reality

If the imaginal realm is ontologically real, which means that is has objective existential quality as Henry Corbin suggests, then the question is how come only few individuals of the human race have encountered this reality? For Corbin, the imaginal realm was more irrefutable and coherent than the world experienced during the waking state. Beholders of the imaginal realm had reported to him that they were perfectly aware of having journeyed elsewhere. These individuals were not schizophrenic or mentally ill. The world that they had experienced was not fantasy. It was a world with form and dimension and even other life-forms. One may wish to consider the words of Carl Sagan, who believed that there was a connection between dreams and evolution. In shamanistic terms, one may refer to these phenomena as evidence towards a universal mind. The self-reflective mind that knows that it knows. The universal mind knows everything, anything and perhaps surprisingly it knows nothing. Its nothingness is described by Buddhist philosophers and practitioners as the state of pure awareness, consciousness without an object of consciousness. In it, moments, events, fly by as ephemeral flashes like fireflies, but nothing is adhered tom nothing is given any value. In essence, everything is seen as a dream. If the universal mind is a composite of our minds, then how is that composite mind integrated? If the process is akin to a superposition of quantum states of awareness, then the results of that superposition will be another state that does not share in the qualities of the separated states. Only if the minds are decoupled, only if there is something that keeps the patterns in the superposition of the minds from emerging, will there be anything like an objective quality emerging in any single mind at all. Yet, if one were to carry this concept further, given the reality of the universal mind, then the mind separations that produce the results of objectivity are an illusion and as such, the reality of the universal mind will from time to time appear within the individual minds. However, it should be noted that the ability to predict and control nature violates the basic paradigm of science, which is not entirely accurate. Humanity has the capacity to predict and manipulate nature, yet it has its consequences, as noted by the recent polar vortex, which is currently passing through Russia. Nonetheless, Niels Bohr was of the opinion that the complementarity, which existed between the wave and the particle aspects of nature were indications of a much deeper complimentarity in which irreconcilable pairs of opposites need not be contradictory. As he once stated, “the opposite of a small truth may be a lie, but the opposite of a great truth is also a great truth.” In essence, the universal mind would strive towards overall self-realisation of its true nature. The non-ordinary reality merely offers symbolic truth in order to decipher the larger picture and recognize the interconnected nature of the universe.

Sense of Self

Bruce S. Dewitt once stated “The many world interpretation of quantum mechanics reveals a universe that is constantly splitting into a stupendous number of branches, all resulting from the measurement like interactions between its myriad of components. Moreover, every quantum transition, taking place on every star, every galaxy, in every remote corner of the universe is splitting our local world into myriads of copies of itself.” Moreover, there is evidence of brain cellular mitosis occurring, but not in neural cells. Certain studies indicate that the glial cells perform metabolic function, also providing nourishment for neural cells. It should be noted that Albert Einsteins brain autopsy after the time of his death showed a larger than average amount of glial cells associated with his visual cortex. This led countless of individuals to suspect their association with intellect and the enhanced ability to visualise abstract concepts. Nowadays, it has been discovered that dementia severs the connection between the glial cells and neurons, resulting it neuronal death. Studies performed by Karl Lashley between 1920 and 1950 indicated that memory was based on the formation of engrams, which are not localised in specific places but distributed holographically, as it may, throughout the brain. Furthermore, the sense of self is connected to self-awareness through memory and body awareness. With diminished body awareness and volitional control, the self appears to expand, losing its bearings in time and space. In conclusion, there are more than likely thousands of pieces of information and/or images within the glial cell memory. These images are states of quantum physical observables and must follow the rules of quantum superposition. Consequently, any composition of a superposition of states will be complimentary to all other levels. Thus, the secondary images are complimentary to all the primary and tertiary images. The tertiary images are complimentary to all primary and secondary images and so forth. Although a single automaton cannot simultaneously hold multiple images consisting of complimentary observations of another system, it can hold multiple images simultaneously, consisting of complimentary observation of images built up self-reflectively. In other terms, if the images contain the observer as well as the observed, the automaton can recall them. Images of objective, external observations cannot be held simultaneously as the simultaneous knowledge of objective complimentary observables is in violation of the uncertainty principle. Thus to perform the same act with objective images is scientifically impossible, according to quantum physics. In conclusion, an object in a state of self-reflection can hold both truth and its opposite at the same time without the creation of a paradox, while the attempt to determine the same thing results in doubt or uncertainty. It should be noted that any single image will correspond to a specific quantum physical state, while the superposition of images would also correspond to the complimentary physical state of an emotion, thought form, archetype or superarchetype. The automaton could measure and thereby obtain various combinations of images in groups of 1-4 or more of these images, It could obtain a single image or all of the images together, thus constructing the complete superarchetype. Conclusively, the awareness of self is intrinsically linked with the decrease of automatic and mechanical behaviour, resulting in greater choices and becoming more aware of ones own behaviour, dreams, decisions, universe and subsequently of existences in other worlds.

One Single Being

In essence, reality is made of probabilities that can be coherent in order for the possibility to form into solid matter. The dream state is a location, in which the quantum reality becomes especially transparent and the mixture of mind and matter is revealed in a variety of ways. Nevertheless, if we all possess such archetypal images constituting the unconscious minds, these images would be on a deeper level than personal experiences. Conclusively, these archetypes would arise from a more fundamental level of reality. In this sense, the dream becomes more fundamental than the objective reality. Fred Alan Wolf suggests that “When we dream, we return to that reality in order to gain information about how to survive in this reality, yet survival may not be as it seems from a single perspective.” The materialist philosopher believes that consciousness arises from matter. If consciousness exists in matter, then matter is consciousness. Furthermore, everything arises in relation to everything else, reality appears not only interconnected, but also interdependent. Conversely, we as human beings often become afraid when others inform us of that which is real and that which is not. We sense an inner conflict with that which we are told. We feel fear, as we know that the viewpoint of a political system is not consistent with our own standpoint. Communism, capitalism and war is not the answer to the world, it is a tendency towards self-hatred and self-destruction. Whatever we imagine often begins to appear, as if it was called into existence, particularly fearful images, which is reminiscent of a self-fulfilling prophecy created by ones own mind. We create these images as realities because the universe is ambivalent and paradoxical. It is of no matter what is produced, as at the most fundamental level of existence, it is capable of forming reality into whatever images are produced. A famous philosopher once enquired “If we light a candle and walked out of the room, does it still burn?” By this he was trying to highlight that it takes a mind to confirm something’s existence. Existence depends on mind because all of existence occurs within mind. We can know of the existence of our universe only because we have a mind and we can manipulate creation only because we have a mind. Mind is the true cause behind effect and therefore all things are of mental nature. Life is interconnected and is truly capable of being one giant life form that is continually expanding, adapting, and evolving in complexity. The binding force of all life therefore becomes consciousness.

Should Psychology And Physics Be Combined?

There is a breach between the fields of physics and psychology. Indeed, between physics and psychology there is a whole abyss. That is understandable if we take into account the different histories and different goals of each of these disciplines. Yet, it does not have to continue to be so in the future, especially if we take into account the fact that both disciplines aim at expanding our knowledge, if we take into account the fact that in the world around us everything is connected to everything by a communicating vessel. All things seem to be connected either by causal links or, as suggested by a physicist Wolfgang Pauli and psychologist Carl Jung, by some “acausal connecting principle.”
In essence the combination of psychology and physics, otherwise known as psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect. Psychophysics has been described as “the scientific study of the relation between stimulus and sensation” or, more completely, as “the analysis of perceptual processes by studying the effect on a subject’s experience or behaviour of systematically
varying the properties of a stimulus along one or more physical dimensions.” It was founded in the laboratory of German Gustav Fechner, psychophysics is one of the parents of modern experimental psychology. It demonstrated that mathematical analysis could be applied to subjective reports, and that principled relationships could be discovered between physical quantities and subjective impressions.
Let us examine a famous example, Weber’s Law, named after Ernst Weber, a colleague of Fechner’s. This formula describes how changes in the subjective perception of stimulus intensity (e.g. how heavy a weight feels) are related to the actual change in stimulus magnitude (how much something actually weighs). You can look up the mathematics of this if you’re interested, but a plain-language interpretation is that to increase the perceived intensity of a stimulus you need to increase its physical magnitude by a constant proportion, not a constant absolute amount. Imagine that you can make an empty bag feel heavier by putting in a book, yet a single book won’t make a bag full of bricks feel heavier, even though in both cases you are adding the same amount of weight. Weber’s Law gives you a mathematical way to calculate how much you would need to increase or decrease the physical weight to produce a subjective impression of a change in heaviness. It also allows you to compare sensitivity between the senses, showing, for example that we are more sensitive to brightness than loudness, because the proportional change needed to create a noticeable difference for lights is smaller than that needed for sounds. As well as discovering many of the few laws that exist in psychology, psychophysics has generated methods and theories which are applied across all of experimental psychology, not just in the investigation of sensation and perception. In applying scientific measurement to subjective experience, the early psychophysicists were demonstrating a faith in empiricism, but they were also throwing themselves upon a dilemma – the attempt to relate the world of the measurable and objective to the subjective inner world of sensation. That dilemma is still just as relevant and profound today in all areas of psychology, and psychophysics is still vital as a toolkit for addressing it.
Sensory perception and interart research seems to occur these days in the in-between spaces of art history, literature, media studies, anthropology, neurological sciences, and numerous more disciplines that contribute to the exploration of a new aesthetics. This new aesthetics very much includes aesthesis or the study of physiologically and psychologically infused perceptive abilities in the human. Yet, what happened to the term “psychophysics” in this arena? A long-out-of-print volume, Sensory Communication by Walter Rosenblith, based on a 1959 symposium, has recently been reissued by MIT Press. It reminds us of pioneers like Fechner, criticized therein, in the early days of experiential aesthetics and of the nascent fascination with the human-computer interface and AI around the middle of the 20th century. S.S. Stevens poignantly extracts and highlights the ambiguities inherent to research in psychophysics, playing into the qualitative-quantitative divide co-existent with C.P. Snow’s “two cultures”. “It must be confessed at the outset that psychophysics has often failed to do its part of the job [it tells what the organism can do and it asks those who are inspired by such mysteries to advance our understanding of how such wonders are performed] with distinction. Its task is not easy. For one thing, long-standing prejudices, derived in great measure from a chronic dualistic metaphysics, have triggered a variety of stubborn objections whenever it has been proposed that sensation may be amenable to orderly and quantitative investigation. You cannot, the objectors, complain, measure the inner, private, subjective strength of a sensation. Perhaps not, in the sense the objectors have in mind, but in a different and very useful sense the strength of a sensation can, as we shall see, be fruitfully quantified. We must forgo arguments about the private life of the mind and ask sensible objective questions about the input-output relations of sensory transducers as these relations are disclosed in the behavior of experimental organisms, whether men or animals.”
Furthermore, the theory of psychophysical parallelism states that mental and physical experiences occur simultaneously and are not necessarily bound by any causal interaction. The theory was established in the early 19th century by a German philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner, also famous for the Weber-Fechner law. While the psychophysical parallelism definition might seem a bit unclear, the theory is very interesting and is one of few philosophical theories which have been accepted by numerous scientists. To better understand Fechner’s approach to mind-body problem a little historical background would be helpful. In the middle of the 19th century, with a more and more rapid progression of scientific thought, many philosophers became interested in explaining the nature of mind and body interaction. This lead to a famous materialism dispute as the opponents of metaphysical philosophy gained many supporters (Vogt, Büchner, Moleschott). Materialistic approach to mind-body dichotomy was at that time seen as very radical, and some of its points still cause much controversy in the 21st century. One of Carl Vogts more memorable quotes around the time was most likely his statement that “Thoughts issue from the brain just as gall is produced by the liver or urine by the kidneys.” Consequently, are our thoughts just like other bodily fluids which are generated in a similar way as numbers in computer programmes? Are we just very sophisticated machines? Gustav Fechner claimed to be able to give the solution to materialism debate. His theory, known as psychophysical parallelism, was first mentioned in 1820s but it was not until 1860 that his approach became widely known, thanks to his mature work Elements of Psychophysics. There are many misconceptions about the meaning of psychophysical parallelism. Countless individuals seem to confuse it with occasionalism, pre-established harmony and Cartesian doctrine of two non-interacting substances. You may read on other websites that psychophysical parallelism is a theory established by Leibniz. It is true that psychophysical parallelism is partially congruent with Leibniz’s theory of non-causal conformity of the soul and the organic body. However, a very important difference is that Fechner rejected any theological grounds for his theory and therefore, even though psychophysical parallelism is a dualistic conception, by no means should it be confused with statements made either by Descartes or Leibniz. Fechner’s theory states that while mental and physical states are not causally dependent they are functionally dependent. What does it mean? It means that to every mental event there is a corresponding brain event. It does not claim causal interaction, it does not deny it. It refrains from explaining the nature of mind and body. It is a very open paradigm. By many it is treated as a good and neutral foundation for more detailed explanations of the nature of mind and body problem albeit the theory itself does not answer many questions.
In other terms, psychophysics attempts to understand the relationship between a physical stimulus and the psychological impression it creates or how the physical world influences the mind. The connection between perception and psychophysics is that perception is one of the constructs examined in the psychological part of the equation. Psychophysics uses quantitative measurements to analyze the relationship between the sensations and perceptions caused by stimuli. The relationship between perception and psychophysics is an important one in that what a person perceives to be so is not always indicative of the stimulus. Stimuli possess different properties which affect whether a person is aware of them or not and dictate their identification. The degree of difference between stimuli will affect whether they are distinguishable or not and to what magnitude a stimulus needs to reach before judgment of similarity and difference can be made.
There are three methods used to measure perception in psychophysics. They are magnitude estimation, matching and detection or discrimination. In magnitude estimation, the subject is required to rate a stimulus on how bright or loud it is on a scale. Matching requires the subject to find the stimuli which are similar in look, sound or pitch. In detection, the subject is asked to discriminate between small differences in intensity or whether a light was flashed or a sound played. Two important terms used in perception and psychophysics are the “absolute threshold” and “difference threshold.” Absolute threshold refers to the smallest detectable amount of stimulus energy, and the difference threshold, or just noticeable difference, refers to the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli.
One of the most important precepts in perception and psychophysics is Weber’s Law which states that the difference threshold between two stimuli is proportional to the baseline or starting intensity. That is, if a small increase in intensity is applied to a small parameter, then that increase can be detected. However, if that same small increase is applied to a larger parameter, it will no longer be detectable.
More and more studies, while not disproving altogether Woody Allen’s theory that the brain is the second most important organ, continue to amass evidence to the contrary. In a paradoxical twist, the field of Psycho-Physics may yet reveal that what we think about disorders in the brain may actually have a greater impact on the brain than their treatment, even the disorders themselves. In fact, what we now perceive as abnormal may soon be the new normal. Recent technologies, along with new diagnostic procedures, are so sophisticated that if there is even the possibility of a disorder, or the need or desire for one, it can be detected. This has raised new questions about the nature of consciousness and the impact of thought on the treatment of mental disease. Indeed, on the proposed invention of it.
This re-visioning of how we think casts a not inconsiderable shadow over the mental health profession regarding a possible bias against the individual psychic disposition. Statistics show that abnormalities in the brain have increased significantly with modern treatment, and this has left some experts to wonder if part of the problem might not be obscured in a broad and all-inclusive classification system. Owing to vague definitions and bloated latitudes, they charge, the individual is viewed as a “mere aggregate of eccentricities.” According to self-reports, the average treatment of twelve sessions per mental health consumer indicated substantial progress. Studies by competitors of those undergoing treatment for extended periods, however, showed actual recovery rates similar to those with no treatment at all. Some conditions even deteriorated with more treatment, prompting many to call for a revaluation of criteria. Insiders reveal that cases are presumed cured only upon depletion of the consumer’s bank account: when the aforesaid is enabled to independently obtain the necessities of existence: twice the mortgage affordable under the most ideal economic conditions, insurance-poverty, and self-medication when feeling overwhelmed. Independent follow-up studies by law firms representing creditors and maxed-out family members, however, found that ninety per cent of consumers returned for more treatment within two years. The discovery that they had minds, yet not knowing what to do with them, sent them back to work in such off-balanced whirlwinds of nervous energy that resuming therapy was a priority even after having gone destitute paying for it in the first place. Recidivism rates compared with those of penitentiary internment. This has led some to suggest a possible “addiction to therapy.”
Crime rates, likewise, didn’t vary significantly between the two groups with one notable exception. Those who underwent treatment before incarceration, once out of a facility, tended to commit more heinous crimes than those whose social stations hadn’t permitted therapy. Once in the system, those under such loose parameters as bible-studies, hand-basket weaving as a means of spiritual contact with the underworld were slightly less violent upon release than those undergoing formal therapy. Psycho-Physics has recently emerged as one of a handful of new approaches which have begun to question the uncritical piling up of statistical data in support of the health industry’s interests along with Eye Rotation Therapy and Tapping. Psycho-Physics is discarding the conventional mantle of scientific pretense for more holistic models which address the individual through pledged commitments to wishful thinking and the power of suggestion.
According to Dr. Aylien Creacher of the Institute for Modern Solipsism stated that “Psycho-Physics proper began with my historical studies of individuality. “Psycho” meaning of course, “crazy”, was combined with “physics”. Greek for “out there”, which also included projected ideas of the body to describe a process of self-examination applied by the individual through the use of concepts designed to free the true personality from the Procrustean bed of modern theory. At the core of Psycho-Physics is the concept of projection. Certain feelings and inner experiences confirm it as psychologically meaningful; however, it cannot be scientifically proven to actually exist. The subjective nature of it makes it relative to the individual in all cases. “Since it is recalcitrant to objective appraisal, it’s seldom employed as a conscious tool for assessment. This ensures that its negative effects work unconsciously. The evaluation of one subjective attitude by another automatically assumes the nature of a value judgment. To regard such projections as belonging only to the consumer and not the practitioner, for example, leads to quite arbitrary conclusions and is therefore scientifically untenable, not to say intellectually unethical. The definition of projection presupposes its functioning in all minds, regardless of personal fantasy. In point of fact, the practioner’s projections actually self-replicate based on the very design of the process itself. The principle of negative sums predicts that the practitioner’s projections will exceed those of others involved.” In conclusion, all the examples of scientific research above have clearly shown that psycho-physics, although it has become distributed and separated amongst numerous sectors and titles, continues to result in discoveries that allow for a greater insight into the nature of mind and matter. One may only dream of that which could be possible, if mankind were to concentrate their focus towards the actual merging and development of the two as a scientific discipline.

Heightism & Paedophilia

Criminological Analysis of Heightism

As previously mentioned within my post regarding the chav based rape and child abuse systems that have been constructed within society and continue to perpetuate themselves, it should be noted that the pregnant child is often kept within a state of fear in order to remain silent, regarding the father. I have personally witnessed parental disputes, in which the parents disregarded the abuser of the child and they become complicit in continuing their association. It has reached a point, in which females are handed over to a male above 6’2ft (most predators are often of that height) at the age of 13 to 14. These females are impregnated repeatedly before reaching the age of 16, by which point all future potential has been lost. Once the female has outlived her purpose, she is replaced for another 13 to 14 year old. And the pattern is repeated. This occurs across the United Kingdom. It has become widespread and mainlined paedophilia. The chav, in essence, requires status and comfort in order to survive within modern society. Any rejection undoubtedly leads to violence.

In consequence, these individuals are also accustomed to obtaining female, which are classically termed as cum-buckets through constant intoxication. The weapons that these men use are far reaching. Disorientation, which can be done through music and turning up the temperature within the premises in order to elevate the heart rate. Psychological side-effects of the base drumming within music has often been utilized during times of war as well as the attainment of a trance state. Additionally, the stripping of clothes represents the stripping of defence layers in the female. Both physically and psychologically. Distortion of judgement: This has already partially been achieved by the loud music, disrupting the thought processes. Classically used in soldiers during times of combat. African tribes used to surround their targets and bang the drums for over 24 hours, after which they had their troops move in according to the drum beat. As the drum beat speeds, whilst the troops are approaching. Same effect occurs in women within these tiny flats that are turned into saunas. This is where alcohol is included into the equation. Chavs not having a lot of money will use very cheap, very chemical alcohol, designed to accelerate the heart beat and cause head rush. More often than not a little bit of cocaine is added to the mix and let the sex commence, regardless of the age of the female participant.

Yet, in order to maintain ones reputation and shine like a new penny, whilst committing acts that are far from a heroic image, one requires an easy target that is already unpopular and possesses very little defence capabilities to take the blame. These scapegoats are often 5’7ft. It has become evident that a short stature in men can be difficult in the dating world, yet during childhood this often results in regular persecution. This is often continued until after the individual leaves school. However, regular bullying implies that there are specific perpetrators that are more often than not above 6ft, especially when the victim is of above average intelligence. The final and first resort of the perpetrators is more often than not violence. Aggression is provoked at the slightest hint of rejection or objection. Even when accusing the individual of performing the actions that they themselves committed, such as child abuse. It has become common practice and these individuals often victimize their childhood targets long after leaving school, even if that means going out of their way to do so or targeting an individual exactly like them. This type of chav feed off media propaganda and utilize it as a manner of controlling others, such as the celebrity media, Hollyoaks East Enders, Coronation Street and so forth. It should be noted that they surround themselves in air of overconfidence. These individuals will often walk around and behave as if the world owes them something and they are there to take it at every opportunity with a shit eating grin on their face and no thanks whatsoever. These individual do not participate in fair fights. On average, it is 6 or more (above 6th) on one individual that is below 6ft. The same perpetrators are the same groups that engage in date rape. As in their own words, “They ain’t sinking money into no sex.” Yet, they do not commit these crimes on their own turf, they raid other gangs club territory, as it is considered. Numerous towns along rail-lines from London to Thanet, London to Brighton, and London to Norwich are often used as a date-rape and acquaintance zones. A room is rented out, then these individuals spot their targets, drug them and return with them to their rooms, leaving them to wake up the next morning within the establishment. In the same manner that CEO’s and the likes travel to foreign countries and other locations of immunity to perform their dark deeds. This can be found within all aspects of society, such as the corporate, industrial, political and religious world. In conclusion, adequate education of children and a true view of society without emotional bias would eliminate this phenomenon almost overnight. The social construct known as heightism would cease to exist with an objective viewpoint of society, whilst removing the social predators and freeing up the space for mental growth within society, enabling it to move forward, beyond the shadow of social corruption.

Related:

https://quantummediocrity.wordpress.com/2014/01/22/chav-paedophile-rings/

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Epidemiology of Ideas

A self-propagating idea or thought contagion, similar to a virus spreads via effective programming for a retransmission. It should be noted that belief affects the retransmission. In consequence, the term memes has emerged involving the science of memetics. However, there are modes of thought contagion, which includes quantity, parental, efficiency parental, proselytic preservational, adversative, cognitive and motivational ones. Each involves a thought contagion carrier or a host, serving to increase the “infected” group or host population. Any idea influencing its hosts have more children than they would have otherwise exhibits quantity parental transmissions. Due to the receptivity to the parental ideas, increasing the number of ideas, increases the number of the projected number of host offspring. Any idea, increasing the fraction of its hosts children, who eventually adopt their parents meme exhibit efficiency parental transmission. For instance, the majority of Amish individuals choose to live separately from those that do not adhere to the same faith, consequently it may intensify the beliefs experienced by the children. In addition, phenolytic cloning, describes parentally replicated memes in humans and other animals. And it is widely known that thoughts spread fastest via the proselytic transmission. A proselyte idea hosts generally pass the idea to individuals other than their own children. Host populations seldom double parentally every ten years, yet a proselytic self-propagating idea under suitable conditions can double its host population in a year or less. The conviction often illustrates proselytic advantage, as the idea strikes fear in its hosts and their fellow man. That fear then drives them to persuade others of military weakness to build pressure in order to act. With the side effect of fear, the belief triggers protelytzing. In the preservational mode, ideas influence hosts to remain hosts for a long time. The belief substantially immunizes its host, for instance, it could possess characteristics that are argument avoiding, hence the belief is preserving its own existence by the avoidance of conflict. The belief may achieve majority status in those that remain “unconverted”, leaving proselytic movements to solicit an increasingly resistant strain on non-hosts. In the adversative mode, ideas influence their host to attack or sabotage competing movements, hence they can either be harmed or remove other memes ability to spread. Nonetheless, within the cognitive advantage, if an idea appears to be well-founded, exposing a group of individuals to them, then non-hosts have a tendency to adopt it, as hosts tend to retain it. That perceived cogency to the total populatiuon provides an idea with its cognitive advantage. However, ideas can also passively amass their host population through the motivational mode, in which individuals adopt or retain an idea due to some form of motive for doing so. Different modes of thought contagion usually occur together. Henceforth, a singular idea has a propagative profile, consisting of any advantages that it may hold in each mode. In conclusion, meme propagation drives memetic innovation by helping generate and recombine ideas. The beliefs spreading most vigorously prevail in the natural selection, providing them with the most suitable opportunities of spawning new variants and combinations.

Memetics

In the structure of scientific revolution, Thomas Kuhn, distinguishes between normal science and revolutionary science. In general science, individuals will build upon the work of others, expanding and easing conceptual paradigms to account for more phenomena in more detail. In revolutionary science,aspects of existing paradigms are adopted. At times, a paradigm shift may be added, as a new manner of comprehending the phenomena. Memetics represent such a shift. Like memetics, economics can measure the success and failure of ideas. Economists typically consider an ideas success in term of how much wealth has been accumulated as a consequnece. Memetics on the other hand measure the success of an idea by how much of the population it accumulates. With average ideas, one may expect that the most lucrative variants can also become the most populous variants. For instance, by taking a route of self-propagation, certain movements may spread exponentially when measured by population, yet  poorly when measured by wealth. The historic contest between communism and capitalism provides a grand illustration of memes propagating at differently in the dimensions of wealth and population. The different fates of economic fates of the two movements arose largely from their opposing rules of ownership. Ownership itself is not a meme, as it consists of information stored at the community level. The individual cannot merely own a car by believing in it, it would require an entire community for her to hold a car in order for her to hold true ownership. As the data resides more at the community rather than the individual level, ownership qualifies as a kind of transcendent meme, yet not as a ordinary one. However, rules of ownership are ordinary meme stored in the mind of the individual. For instance, memes emphasising wealth as a criterion for reckoning an individuals value can create an immense drive in order to accumulate wealth. Truth be told, these memes view and pursue wealth as a means of bettering themselves. Nonetheless, while memetic reasoning applies to social stratification, it addresses class neutral types of belief transmission most forcefully. When a meme achieves situational invariant replication, it stands a better chance of spreading recursively enough to develop into a mass thought contagion, hence transitioning countless individuals into a differing state of mind than previously applicable.

As Dawkins stated “When you plant a fertile meme in the mind, one literally parasitize the brain, turning it into vehicle for the meme propagation in just the same way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell.”

Within the family structure: Parental replication favours the decision to pursue the construction of a family unit, on average, individuals of this kind transmit their family values to more children than those, who hold indifferent or avoidant family values. Over generations, this ensures that the majority of the population become family orientated. However, non-hosts of the family meme do not face extinction, even if no children are raised. It is of no consequence how many children are brought up within a family-minded environment, a fraction of the children do not imitate their parents values. Nonetheless, the individuals that do imitate their parents constitute the family memes imitation ratio. Natural selection generally favours high imitation ratios, as well imitated memes outpropagate poorly instated ones. Still, the acquirement of high imitation ratios can collide with the achievement of high fertility rates, which are also favoured by natural selection. For instance, after the baby boom as a result of the war, numerous offsprings of “baby boomers” eventually decided to remain childless. However, it should be noted that the birth rate only began to calm down over the last decade. Henceforth, the family orientated viewpoint spreads by favouring reproduction, yet less propagation occurs when too much reproduction is promoted. Evolution, therefore, may favour a degree of moderation. Overall, imitation rates are dependent upon the details of the family structure and the specific types of parental guidance, nonetheless these also obey the forces of evolution by natural selection. In conclusion, the degree to which the children are loved by their parental guardians is a rather profound determinant of the imitation ratio. If a healthy relationship is present, the child would be more recipient to memes provided by the parents. Yet, if the child becomes convinced that the family values are presented for self interest, the child may become less responsive to them. Even, the notion of loving and caring for ones own child is a meme in itself that is passed on by the family orientated approach. In regards to non-nuclear family structures, the tribal orientated conceptualization constituted the joint child-raising and sexually open marriages. Although these tribes would also discard of genetically “unfit” infants as it would endanger the survival of the collective, most tribal bases possessed a degree of order within the elders in order to avoid inbreeding, which may result in a visibly differing genetic code or deformities. Conversely, nuclear family structures, also known as biparental, holds both biological parents responsible for the upbringing of the infant, in its pure form it relies upon the commitment of sexual monogamy, ensuring that the father becomes the child’s familial father. The nuclear family meme set creates economic motives for retransmitting to the offspring and other relatives. Yet, one fertility advantage arises from memetic diversity among its adherents. Biparentalism propagates by ensuring that the individuals, whose mating behaviour produces the most children also raise those children personally. In frequency, the parent with the most profound bundles of quantity parental memes are the ones imparting ideas to the most children.

Attitudes Towards Sexuality

Throughout history, the mating processes have adapted to the lifestyle of  humanity. Before the industrial age, it was favoured to foster many children in order to maintain the farm, not to mention the death rate of infants. However, within modern western society that are not strictly religious, the choice of whether to engage in premarital sex or remain in celibacy. This naturally motivates marriage at an earlier age, yet there are drawbacks to either scenario within modern living. The notion of celibacy or premarital sex becomes a deterrent for individuals, which can lead to swaying from one extreme to another. One should not shun the idea of premarital sex in order to prevent it, as it has lead to the suffering of countless of individuals in loveless marriages without the possibility of divorce. Often, women were not briefed in regards to sexual proceedings or child-birth, and numerous were merely dropped intro their wedding night without knowing the results of their actions. Professionally, I have spoken to a few women that unfortunately suffered similar circumstances. The shock of pregnancy literally can destroy marriages due to the lack of intimacy and sex afterwards. The pure idea of sexual contact with a male after that point can trigger anxiety attacks and negative belief structures towards the male gender. Nevertheless, certain individuals experience sexually motivated proselytism, whether driven by lust or status, often hold the proselytic advantage over monogamists. However, sexual monogamists and “pluralists” both wish to spread their memes to anyone that they consider attractive, although monogamists tend to cease this attraction-based proselytism once they have discovered their one sexual relationship. Meanwhile, pluralists continue proselytising potential partners, even after having begun one or more relationships. Conclusively, sexually transmitted beliefs, such as the promiscuity meme, prime their host populations for analogously transmitted diseases. Once a sexually transmitted disease epidemic occurs, the motivational and proselytic stories are altered for the promiscuity meme. Hosts develop health motives for converting to the monogamy meme, and then for spreading it to the potential or actual sexual partners. Health motivated monogamy memes stormed the population during the herpes scare, and greatly intensified with the chilling news of AIDS. Expectedly, within the progress of mankind, evolution influenced the eligibility meme fiercely in matters of homosexual or heterosexual mating. These memes may interact so profoundly with genetic evolution that the fates of memes and genes cannot be entirely separated. Prehistorically, genes favouring homosexuality would perhaps fade due to lack of reproduction and lack of a suitable mate, however it is increasingly common in the animal kingdom. Nonetheless, this sexual taboo would become compounded over generations until the inclination towards it would grow less intense, yet with the civil rights movement it became possible for them to pursue their core desires legitimately. In conclusion, memes and social expectations have always held a firm grasp around the legitimacy of action. In certain family units, it would be considered more appropriate to mate with an individual of the same social class and standing, in other countries it would be socially despicable to consider the marriage of an individual from a different country. In conclusion, the epidemiology of ideas in combination with the intensity of will, it is dependent upon the individual which path would be pursued as it may, however the stronger the drive or inclination towards the meme, the greater the desire for it becomes.

Health Memes and Their Consequences

There are a variety of religious customs and belief structures that have persisted throughout generations, such as the practice of circumcision. It was exercised by the Hebrew community for thousands of years, before it was transferred to early forms of Christianity that then continued to circumcise male offsprings, whilst abandoning numerous other customs of the Jewish faith. Conclusively, the preventative value of circumcision still remains questionable. Conversely, circumcision may have spread by raising the reproductive rates of the individual couples. Circumcision eliminates the self-gliding capacity of the penis, channelling more lust to vaginal intercourse by limiting non-lubricated arousal methods. Activities ranging from masturbation to vaginal sex become more challenging without the application of lubricant. In ancient times, the requirement for additional lubricant may have posed difficulties, leading couples to continue and perform intercourse vaginally. The circumcision meme would therefore have flourished parentally. Nowadays, the wider availability of lubricants reduces the reproductive advantage of the circumcision meme. In regards to female customs, differences in fertility exert their influence on the culture of infant feeding. In the old-fashioned manner of keeping the infant at the mothers breast day and night, where they feed at an average interval of six minutes. This methodology, breast-feeding acts as a natural contraceptive. The frequently nursing mother does not ovulate until the infant is weaned off the breast-feeding a few years later. The biological mechanism provides birth spacing to prevent the infants starvation under primitive or critical conditions. Memes that shorten the natural duration of birth-spacing can proliferate parentally when the mothers possess extra nutrition for the infant. A certain amount of these memes act by altering breast-feeding schedules to the degree of a diminished contraceptive effect; others dispense with breast-feeding altogether. Any meme can be health orientated within moderation, although the obsession with a set of memes may cause undesirable consequences. In conclusion, the belief in negative side-effects to ones health, resulting from dietary temptations or lack of exercise and so forth,  can yield an exponential amount of power. The meme becomes emotionally charged with feelings of guilt, worry or fear, that with certain individuals may lead to self exertion in order to catch up on lost time. Not all memes in regards to health will be positive, yet like any idea or belief structure that upholds negative consequences, it can be transitioned that may influence the emotional, physical, genetical and mental side of the individual to blossom.

 “Controversy supports the spread of memes about war, weapons and abortion.”

The current United States controversy in regards to handguns and other firearms arose during the time of gun control memes being propagated widely enough to challenge older, more permissive firearm memes. Pro-firearm memes had developed along with the manufacturing of the weapons themselves for the usage of self-defence and hunting. “After that, the demand for private guns stemmed largely from the knowledge that if others had them, then those who did not would live in peril”. Although one cannot cease the act of killing one another, one may be able to limit the availability of weapons. Yet, Kane and Abel did not possess any fire power, simply a rock. If the memes of murdering another are profound enough, no lack of weapon would stop them. In Europe, archaeological discoveries unravelled a man that had died from wet concrete hardening as it was poured down his throat. The controversy spreads as it is a form of hypocrisy and at time even threatens the personal rate of survival. Within the UK, countless individuals have been prosecuted for defending themselves against a burglar or thief, however more often than not, the law stands on the side of the criminal. For instance, an old lady heard an individual on her roof in the middle of the night, as she went to check the original location of the noise, the offender fell through the glass pane, injuring himself on the table he landed. Criminal charges eventually convicted the old lady for health and safety violations, allowing the perpetrator to receive financial compensation. In consequence, any meme that may threaten ones own personal safety and survival would result in a genetic or environmental change in behaviour. For instance, if one were to fall victim to a school shooing or a bombing, the previously conceived safety has become compromised until a later point in time. An individual that prior to the event did not approve of guns may be confronted with the probability of their own death without the faintest possibility of action. Weapons often provide a sense of control and security for men and women, however even in the occasion of war, countless prefer to spread pro-gun memes with the availability to prevent the loss of lives and necessity of survival. Nevertheless, within the United States, abortion ranks as the mother of all controversies, it simultaneously embroils moral, religious, ethnic, sexual, feminist and civil rights motives. Although abortion was effectively utilized in ancient Greek and Rome, as well as other ancient cultures. Certain more advanced methods included thin instruments for lancing a foetus, which would lead to the body being aborted within a twenty-four hour period, leaving foreign objects in the uterus and even abortifacient herbal drugs. As the antiabortion memes gained prevalence, they filtered into the most powerful positions in government and clergy. Both church and state inevitably acted against abortion, prohibiting it until the mid-nineteenth century. Doctorless abortions had become a common practice, often resulting in death and infertility, however they were slowly taking over the territory of medical physicians. These abortions bans removed a large amount of the reproductive differences that favoured the bans in the beginning. The more effective the ban, the higher rate of live births per pregnancy, even amongst permissive abortion memes. In conclusion, as one of the most profound forces of nature, the evolution of replicating entities by natural selection extends beyond biology, having newly found importance in the origin of beliefs. Where once one had thought ones origins above nature, a humbler truth of biological evolution is now available. Where once one thought ones belief and values above the laws of nature, now it is known that they are outcome of natural selection. A result of free will and probabilities created by choice.

Resistance Against Memes

Dawkins defines the term meme as an idea, a pattern of behaviour or style that spreads from one individual to another within a culture. A meme acts as a unit, carrying cultural ideas, symbols, practices or religious ideologies that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena. Supporters of the concept regard cultural analogues to the genes in that they self-replicate, mutate and respond to selective environmental influences. Yet, how does one become infected by an idea? Within Neuro Linguistic Programming, the outcome of a verbal or physical interaction is dependent upon the individual. Linguistically, we all at one point or another pose suggestions to a fellow human. Ones opinions and viewpoints can easily become facts within the mind of an individual, they become beliefs. Dependent upon the length and intensity since the meme has been transmitted often determines the amount of resistance towards a concept that may entirely remove the formerly held concepts. In consequence, there are techniques within NLP that permits the practitioner to gradually pose suggestions towards a particular direction without the direct awareness of the client of the proceedings. As it is a practice that is based upon linguistics, the specific grammar and wording applied can make the difference between acceptance and rejection. However, it should be noted that a few of these particular NLP procedures have to be carried out without the knowledge of the client in order for the suggestion to be planted on a subconscious level over a regular period of time. As the placement of negative suggestions and beliefs is a rather dangerous move, since it can backfire in the extremes, upholding an ethical codex becomes of great significance. Memes, the notion has to first be embraced by the individual in order to form a similar unit to memes within time. However, each individual differs in suggestibility, there will always be those that are more easily led towards an objective than others. Consequently, certain memes will be much easier to process as truth than others. For instance, there are individuals that are convinced that the government has establish extraterrestrial contact a long time ago and even fought wars against them. This notion for a patriot would be most likely rejected with force, as it would physically collide with a meme that has much deeper roots. Each meme in a way also is a habit, an action performed with routine, a belief upheld with routine or a specific fact accepted in regards to social classes or races. In my professional opinion, the memes that have been parentally transmitted or transmitted during childhood are often the most challenging to overcome. In frequency, it requires years in order to gradually alter unhealthy attributes acquired at an early age. Truth be told, I have encountered few individuals that have gone through the suffering of the proceedings in order to accomplish such a task. The resistance that is experienced when attempting to influence the individuals towards a specific meme becomes equivalent to removing almost all that they have ever known. Through the years, I have learnt that the period of replacing the patterns is not necessarily the most difficult set of circumstances. For me, it is the almost literal shattering of their psyche in order to rebuild it, as it may. To release certain belief structures can equal an emotional death to the individual, they are almost entirely transformed and often not very fond of their previous personality, now having completely altered their mindset. Yet, ultimately it is all a matter of perspective. The truth of a meme can not necessarily be adequately proven, as it may include cultural, sociological, psychological or religious notions. In essence, countless wars have been fought over the most accurate belief structures without a more definite answer, merely higher conversion rates. Nonetheless, not many individuals change their original birth religion, yet in occasions it occurs, there is more often than not a rather intriguing reasoning behind it. Personally, I am of the outlook that the spiritual or religious memes would provide a sort of transpersonal foundation from which the individual is capable of operating. Once one removes faith or once an individual is robbed of their faith, a mental and emotional transition happens, which often causes them to seek for a new degree of meaning that allows them to further process the previous occurrences. It is a widely known fact that the environment influences the formation and activation of DNA. For instance, if an individuals survival were dependent upon upholding a particular meme, a large percent of the population would most likely cooperate for an extended period of time, dependent upon the level of discomfort the meme provides. In my professional opinion, the amount of depth required for the idea to sink into the mind would be relevant when posing the suggestions. Any individual can be suggestible to anything, if they are approached at the right point in time. For example, a young man has lost his faith, presenting himself in a vulnerable state of mind, wishing for anything to be able to avoid the suffering that he is in and regain his former faith. If he was approached by an individual of a religious order or particular belief structure that managed to swiftly build rapport with him and provided useful as well as inspiring ideologies of a practice that may suit him more in order to unfold his true potential. It is also possible for any psychology or NLP practitioner to induce a state of emotion by the use of anchors and other techniques to then successfully plant the suggestion, when the individual is visible distracted due to internal processes. As a matter of fact, there are a wide variety of methods with which one could convince or manipulate others to share ones viewpoint, yet there are more often than not limits to how far one is permitted to influence an individual. There are segments of life, which one may feel more resistant towards surrendering, and for each human being that may be a meme that is constructed out of variant unique components, forming a unique aspect of an individual. As the psyche is in itself unique, each individual possesses the free will in order to select the kind of information that they wish to maintain. Whereas certain individuals may be fascinated with the memes associated with a type of personality attribute, others would be intrigued by an entirely different sort.

Truth be told, there are a wide range of hypocritical memes within modern society, with the attitude of “Do as I say, Not as I do.” To build the foundation of an idea on a concept that borders on self-deception may often lead to self-fulfilling prophecies that may not be entirely positive or pleasant at all. In conclusion, I have become rather resistant towards insincerity and closed minded approaches by western religions that were altered by the Roman Emporer, such as the Islam, Judaism Jehova Witnesses and Roman Catholicism. I do not mock or reticule their memes, as it is their right to keep them. In my personal opinion, if an individual decides to adopt the Christian faith, they should be aware of the actions and misdeeds of their religion since its foundation. Countless are not aware that the scriptures were altered or even of certain parts of the scriptures, although there are not many positive reactions in regards to more old-fashioned verses that may not necessarily adhere to the human rights legislations or the Geneva convention. As Aaron Lynch wrote “Christianitys great proselytic expansion throughout medieval Europe eventually saturated that continent. So many people heard “the Word” that immunity to conversion replaced non-exposure as the prevailing reason for unbelief, among Jews, for instance. Put another way the survival of unbelief depended so much on resistance to Christianity that memetic immunity evolved by natural selection among the other religions.” It should be noted that intense religiosity can also confer resistance to the sexually motivated proselytism of memes favouring pleasure over reproduction. If men promote such ideas as premarital sex to females more assertively than vice versa, and if the ideas do diminish reproduction, then religion advances the females reproductive careers more than the males. “This would raise the number of daughters emulating a religious woman more than the number of sons emulating a religious man.” If the accumulation has persisted over generations, the effect can preferentially heighten female religiosity. A deeper purpose for gender correlated religiosity stems from its special involvement in marriage. The treatment of marriage by Roman Catholics as a sacrament automatically defines God, as the enforcer of the vows. To true believers, this enforcement becomes inescapable. No individual with solemn faith can expect to abandon a spouse or otherwise break the vows and flee without consequences. However, ultimately marital security becomes a pivotal role in the willingness to bear children, especially for females. Women commonly suffer much greater material and reproductive loss from desertion than their male counterpart. Therefore, any memes that cause female hosts to marry an unshakably vow-abiding husband tend to promote the women’s reproductive success. If the memes also aid the females to perceive their husbands as being intently committed to the relationship, loyal and entirely faithful, the resultant emotions of reproductive security can facilitate a higher rate of fertility. Overall, those individuals that hold moral taboos would seldom convert, even with a guarantee of financial security or success provided for them. For instance, Mormons and other fundamentalist groups may continue to resist conversion for generations, preserving the memetic patterns for generations. In consideration, this contest of religions would persist for a near eternity. In consequence, if each proselytic movement launches a resistance, the memetic contents would still eventually be concluded in stalemate. However, in practice that is a rare occurrence. In frequency, the only memetic variants that continue to spread are those that carry the movement to a more aggressive phase. In the adversative mode, ideas influence their hosts to attack or sabotage competing movements. The host has either the choice to harm non-host individuals or attempt to destroy their memes ability to spread even further. Both of these mechanisms occur with the Muslim faith, supported by the Koran and the Way of the Sword. It is stated that God rewards those that fight and kill for the belief of Islam. Provided that this meme does not rid itself of too many individuals during the process, the killing increases the relative size of its Islamic host population. Secondly, adherents frighten numerous non-muslims into silence, largely demolishing the idea of proselytic infectiousness. Additionally, this also reduces the projected number of non-hosts increasing the relative prevalence of Islam. Adversative replication advantages occur only when aggressive action results from the memes themselves, since only then it can favour one movement or another. In conclusion, the only manner in which an individual is capable of averting unhealthy suggestions or memes for inappropriate reasons would be self-awareness. To be aware of suggestions and rhetorical enquiries being posed in order to attain a form of agreement. In consequence, each individual possesses memes that are of a positive, open-minded and non-judgemental nature. To embrace a meme does not necessarily mean one will have to live by it for the rest of ones life, especially with the concept of religion. However, one always maintain conscious control over ones decisions, even if coerced in order to survive a peculiar set of circumstances. As Aaron Lynch famously stated “In every corner of our lives, from how we raise young to how we treat the ill, from how we seek pleasure to what we hold sacred, from how we make love to how we wage war, evolving thought contagions live with us and in us, telling us how.”

Toward the Superconscious

5 Major Eras of Human Development

It should be noted that the major stages of evolution of human consciousness adheres to the twenty tenets, thus there exists an overall continuity toward evolution, from the physiosphere to the biosphere to the noosphere. One is able to outline predominant world views of the various epochs of human development. These stages may be summarized as archaic, magic, mythic, rational or existential that can be correlated with the major stages of technological and economic development, which are foraging, horticultural, agrarian, industrial and informational. For instance, within foraging societies, more commonly known as the hunting and gathering stage, the roles of men and women were sharply delineated and separated, in which the male performed the hunting and the women conducted the gathering and child raising. It is approximated that 97% of foraging societies followed that rigid pattern. There was a particular emphasis placed on either the male or female value sphere. Foraging societies originally emerged between a million and four thousand years ago. Certain tribal cultures at the time lived an ecologically sound life whereas others did not, which was resultant in the extinction of numerous species. Modern day lineage in any country can be traced back to their tribal ancestors, which could only be established through the beginning or agriculture to prevent the extinction of countless animal species, allowing the tribes to transcend to a new way of living as well as being, as it may. In consequence, there was a shift in status within the family unit during the horticultural epoch. 80% of the nutrition would be produced by women as the men still continued to hunt. These societies provided an equal status to men and women. Interestingly, the lineage of those tribal societies is more often than not traced through the mother. One third of these societies had female only deities, particularly the “Great Mother” in her various forms. Most of these locations possessed a horticultural background, which began around 10’000 BCE in the East and West. In the Agrarian stage, a profound shift in culture began with the introduction of the plow. Subsequently, these societies had the most highly sexually polarized structures of any known societal type. Not due to the interference of a particular gender, but the most effective form of organisation that could be applied at the time. When men began to be the sole provider of food, the deity figures in these cultures switched from female-orientated to to mainly male orientated. Over 90% of agrarian societies had primarily male deities. With the industrialisation, the first and foremost technological means were developed in order for humans to rely upon the power of machines rather than their own strength. It removed emphasis upon male strength, replacing it with gender neutral engines, allowing for the women’s movement to emerge. Gender roles no longer determined the roles within society. Although the primary cause for ecological devastation still remains. Ignorance. Whereas tribal ignorance is merely capable of inflicting limited damage, industrial ignorance can wipe our an entire quadrant of space or more. Modernity and Post-modernity become two sides of the same coin, continually striving for further technological advancement regardless of the cost. However, in order to understand post-modernity, one has to understand the fundamental Enlightenment paradigm, which is represented by the notion that you have the self or the subject on one side and the empirical sensory world on the other and the valid knowledge consists in the construction of maps of the empirical world. If both correspond with one another, the result is then viewed as truth.

The Big Three

Within the book History of Everything, Wilber describes the basic divisions of the four quadrants. Everything on the Right Hand can is described in “It” language. All on the Upper Left is described in “I” language, whereas everything on the Lower Left is defined as “We”. In sum, the “It” language is objective, neutral, encompassing mostly value-free surfaces. It is the standard for the empirical, analytical approach. In other terms, it is monological, describing objective exteriors and their interrelations, such as observable surfaces and patterns that can be viewed with the senses or their instrumental extensions. Here, information is defined as negative entropy, in which presence or consciousness is not required. However, the “I” language represents the presence of the individual or subjective awareness. All that is on the Upper left is basically described within the “I” language of interior subjectivity. For example, the subjective component of any holon is the I-component. This self becomes greater with increased depth, yet this component cannot under any circumstances be described within it “it” language, which would convert the subject into a mere object, which has led to countless dehumanizing results throughout history, especially considering consciousness control experiments with children below the age of five. Whether these objects are singular or whether they are collective strands within the web, history has educated humanity that reductionism can result in dreadful catastrophe. Subsequently, the third language, is the Lower Left, the cultural and intersubjective dimension. It is represented by the collective world view that is associated with a particular time, location and culture inhabit. These perspectives naturally evolve, thus archaic, magic, mythic and ration standspoints can be discovered here. In conclusion, at the very minimum, mankind has these three fundamental languages, which differ from one another, addressing the various domains. The failure to differentiate these languages has caused a profound amount of confusion. Thus, Wilbers concept of the Big Three is a simplified version of the four quadrants, since both Right Hand quadrants are objective exteriors or “its”. Consequently, for the sake of simplicity, the four quadrants can be dealt with as the Big Three.

In reference to the fundamental Enlightenment paradigm that reduces all “I” and “we” to its, which reduced the three languages to merely one, as a form of subtle reductionism. In essence, it reduced all of the Left Hand dimensions to their Right Hand correlates. In conclusion, according to theorists from Weber to Habermas, modernity entirely differentiated between the Big Three for the first time in history. Various domains such as morals, science, self, culture and nature were no longer syncretically fused. Yet in order to achieve integration, one should seek solutions by regressing to mythic or magic indissociation of the Big Three, where self, culture and nature were not yet differentiated. Hence, one will discover manners in which to integrate mind, culture and nature in the postmodern world. Within the spiritual themes, the notions of Buddha (spiritual realizer), Dharma (Realized truth) and Sangha (Communal realisation) begin to surface as consciousness evolution continues into the higher domains of existence.

Difference Between Stages and States of Consciousness

Wilber refers describes the basic structures of consciousness in nine variant stages, including sensation and perception (sensoriphysical), impulse and image (phantasmic-emotional), symbols and concepts (representational mind), concrete rules (rule/roles of mind), formal-reflexive, and vision-logic (integrative), following the transpersonal stages of psychic, subtle and causal. However, the highest stage of all is non-duality, although it could be argued that it is not a stage at all, yet in practice it truly becomes a stage of consciousness. With each stage of development, the individual develops a reformed view of the world. The world is transformed and can be rediscovered anew. However, the stages and states are clearly interlinked, each individual, due to the nature of the psyche, will experience them differently. As stages of development are rather similar to states of being, they are often illustrated similarly, yet their essence can differ when one examines the pathology of the individual. For instance, if dissociation is severe at certain stages of development, the processes of self-development can come to a halt. As Wilber describes it “More often than not, the self will simply limp along down the road, dissociation and all. It will continue to develop, it will continue to climb the basic structures in expanding awareness, however haltingly or however wounded. It may bleed all over the place, but it keep climbing.” This elaborates upon how an individual can be stuck at a certain stage of development, whilst continuing to expand their state of being. Yet, since the individual is literally bound at that stage, there is limited room for expansion, which in severe cases can be increasingly visible the more time progresses. Nonetheless, it is also rather simple to mistake a state of being for a stage of development or vice versa, especially if the individual is at a dubious age. For instance, if a childhood sociopath slips through the cracks of the system until teenage years, it is more often than not impossible to diagnose them as such through the means of psychoanalysis due to the similarities in behaviour during that stage of development. However, sociopathy is in essence, a state of being, a view of the world that can expand according to stage of development, yet the state of being can persist and even hinder them from attaining higher stages of development. It should be noted though that a recent study has shown that sociopathic tendencies were and are increasingly common within Zen Buddhism. Yet, Jung noted that there is a distinction between emotional detachment or non-attachment in comparison to raw sociopathic tendencies. As a side-note, sociopathic inclinations can be curved by attending to the state of being as well as stage of development simultaneously, hence there is a profound importance in distinguishing between the two conceptions.

Psychology of the Ego

There is a distinction between the true self and the false self or persona. Within the psychological stages of development, the ego forms a centre of gravity, as it may. It represents the drives, the likes, the dislikes and the desires of the individual. As the ego often functions based upon past experiences and learnt behaviour, it may hinder the individual from progressing throughout the stages of development, however it should not be viewed as a negative component of consciousness. Nonetheless, it should be noted that evolution could be viewed as a general decline of egocentrism, which expresses a general decrease of involvement of the ego within spiritual development. The ego provides a form of anchor for the self during the lifespan of the individual, at times it can even become the centre of the self. It is the preconceived identity that has been incorporated into the self on a conscious level. However, the ego is not a static component, it can mature during stages of development and can take on various roles until reaching a point of transcendence whilst the individual progresses through the stages of spiritual development. The ego within psychological development, for instance, can take on the role of satisfying certain desires or all desires no matter the cost. Yet, there is another side to that coin, which mostly occurs during the early childhood. In the words of Howard Gardner “The young child is totally egocentric, meaning not that he is incapable of thinking about himself. The egocentric child is unable to differentiate himself from the rest of the world. He has not yet separated himself from others or objects. Thus he feels that others share his pain or pleasure, that his mumblings will inevitably be understood, that his perspective is shared by all, that even animals and plants partake his consciousness.” Hence Gardner felt, there was a general decline in egocentrism during human development. Throughout the stages of spiritual development, the individual returns to a somewhat modified viewpoint of almost exactly the same conception. Nonetheless, as the child matures, it no longer treats the environment as an extension of itself. The world and the child have become differentiated, although the emotional self and the emotional world have not yet become distinctly separate. With the conceptual self, the self has become a conceptual ego that cannot yet take the role of another. Although once it can, it will. As Wilber describes it, the shift between a sociocentric to a worldcentric perspective becomes a transcendence of the shallower and a disclosure of the deeper. It becomes a battle between enlightenment and the ego, as it may.

Four Quadrants of Space

Wilber states that a part of the coming transformation will involve an alteration in consciousness and a change in institutions. Consequently, it would involve the incorporation of a new worldview, encompoassing a technological, economical base with the emergence of a new sense of self including behavioural patterns. Whether it is realised or not, the phenomenal world consists of a wide variety of holachical maps that consist of the same territory. By comparing and contrasting the differences and similarities, Wilber intended to discover the single and basic holarchy that all of them were attempting to represent. Yet, the more he was attempting this, Wilber discovered that these various holarchies possessed undeniable similarities, yet also profound differences, however the exact nature of these differences did not seem apparent at all. Eventually, he concluded that they were actually four different types of holarchies, thus four different types of holistic sequences. He began to refer to these as the four quadrants. He then arrived at the conclusion that these types of holarchies have a rather simple foundation. These four types of holarchies are in actually concerned with the inside and outside of a holon, in both its individual and collective forms. Inside, outside, singular and plural are one of the simplest number of distinctions that can be made. Consequently, these very basic features, which are present in all holons provide us with the four quadrants. All four of these types are dealing with aspects of holons, which keep aggressively and insistently showing up on the various maps around the globe. If one begins to observe the individual holon, in both its interior and exterior, which is represented by the Upper Left quadrant and the Upper Right quadrant, each level trancends and includes its predecessor. Each level includes the basics of the previous level and then adds its own distinction and defining characteristics and its own emergents. It should be noted that each of these follow the twenty tenets. The exterior aims to concern itself with appearance of the cell, atom or organism, including its evolution, whereas the interior concerns itself with internal, emotional aspects. It refers to the interior depth, which is consciousness itself. For instance, certain basic kinds of interior awareness go hand in hand with various exterior forms., such as irritability, which is the capacity to actively respond to environmental stimuli originates with cells. Sensations emerge with neuronal organisms. Perceptions begin to develop with a neural cord. Impulses, however, originate with a brain stem and basic emotions with a limbic system. This is clearly also a subjective holarchy.

Individual holons exist only in communities of similar-depth holons, Wilber refers to these as communal holons that are always associated with individual holons. This communal aspect also possesses an interior and exterior, which is referred to as the Lower Left and Lower Right. The cultural, refers to all the interior meanings, values and identities, whereas social refers to all of the exterior, material, institutional forms of the community. In a general sense, cultural refers to the shared collective worldview and social refers to the material base of that worldview. For instance, “if consciousness is depth and depth goes all the way down, then shared depth or common depth goes all the way down, hence culture goes all the way down.” In other terms, if holons share outsides, they also share insides, their culture, as it may. For example, the study of what holons can respond to is essentially the study of shared world spaces. For example, within a pack of wolves, as they possess a limbic system, the interior correlate of which is certain basic emotion. Thus, a wolf orientates itself and its fellow wolves to the world through the use of basic emotional cognitions through a sophisticated emotional signal system. Yet, anything outside that world-space is not registered. Consequently, the transformation that Wilber refers to is that of consciousness.

 Left Hand Approach Versus Right Hand Approach

From the beginning of each quest for knowledge, the various approaches toward its discovery have fallen into one or another of these two categories. Interior or exterior, which is basically a Left-handed versus Right-handed approach. All that is categorized as being on the Right hand is objects or exteriors that can be seen empirically with the senses or their extensions. They are all surfaces that can be seen. They all possess locations. It could be termed as a monological approach, as the interior irrelevant to this specific approach. It not necessary to communicate with the subject or object. One is basically reduced to an object of observation. Naturally, this scientific approach is not erroneous, but it is merely one side of the spectrum. The Left hand, however, is not observed in such a simple manner, as it is largely an interior dimension without physical locations. One therefore attempts to get closer towards the consciousness. In essence, there is no other means to reach the interior except by interpretation. This approach requires communication and expression in order to become comprehensible. Henceforth, a rather distinct difference between both approaches is that surfaces can be observed whereas depth must be interpreted. Furthermore, psychoanalysis is basically an interpretive or Left Hand approach, whilst classical behaviourism would be classified as Right Hand or empirical approach. For instance, dreams are interior events that are composed of symbols, which can only be analysed by interpretation. Freud’s notion of the talking cure on the other hand would be described as being dialogical, not monological. In conclusion, all therapies that are based upon communication are fundamentally based upon a single principle, the attempt to discover a more adequate interpretation for ones own interior depth. The Upper Right quadrant approaches, such as behaviourism or biological psychiatry at their extreme do not wish to associate themselves with interpretation, depth, interiors and intentions, their interest solely concerns itself with the observable, empirical and exterior behaviour. There is no attempt to reveal the meaning of the symptoms. The correction of the chemical imbalance of serotonin, for instance, may restore the physical balance of the body it would not relieve depression that has been interiorly caused until adequate interpretation of those regions of consciousness has been conducted.

Ascending and Descending

There are a wide variety of interpretations in regards to spiritual transformation and spiritual illumination. The experience itself would be direct and immediate. However, eventually, the individual will return to an ordinary state of consciousness, which is when the individual will begin to interpret the experience and its depth. Consequently, how this experience is interpreted will govern how the individual approaches others with this illumination, especially how the experience eventually affects the self. For instance, whether this experience was transmental or transpersonal, the individual would eventually orientate themselves according to the experience. The individual is not merely composed of spiritual components, there are also physical, psychological and emotional components and so forth, hence if the individual cannot integrate it with the rest of the consciousness, as it cannot be adequately interpreted, the experience contains no meaning, as it contains no comprehension. It should be noted that one of the basic rules of interpretation is that all meaning is context based, therefore any attempt to interpret the experience, the individual has to ensure that the context against which the individual interprets the experience is as full and complete as possible. Ideally, an all quadrant interpretation from the context of the cosmos in all dimensions would be preferable, however countless individual analyse these experiences based on the realities of simply one quadrant, which often results in the loss of the fullness of the experience.

Numerous individuals interpret these spiritual experiences basically in terms of the higher self or higher consciousness, incl. Archetypal forms or enneagram pattern and so forth, whereas they are more often than not oblivious to social and cultural aspects of the experience, becoming a “self-only” interpretation that does not adhere to the more materialistic quadrants within existence. Others prefer to interpret mostly in terms of the Lower Right quadrant. The ultimate reality becomes the empirical web of life, Gaia or the biosphere, in which all holons are reduced to being merely a strand in a web. These approaches neglect the interior states of consciousness development, reducing all Left Hand components to Right Hand strands within the empirical web. Nonetheless, all of these one quadrant viewpoints contain a moment of truth, which is that fragmented interpretations tend to abort the spiritual process itself. One may only arrive at an adequate interpretation of enlightenment, if one were to include all four quadrants. Wilber states that the intention would be to find oneself in sympathetic attunement with all aspects of the Kosmos in order to discover the truth in all four quadrants and gain a deeper perspective within the layers of existence.

During the higher or transpersonal stages, the spirit that was present throughout the entire evolutionary process becomes increasingly conscious of its own condition. It was originally subconscious, but became self-conscious and then superconscious, unfolding more of itself and enfolding more of itself at every stage. This is the path of conscious ascension. The path of enlightenment. The path of becoming… A path that does not necessarily concerns itself with this particular realm of existence, primarily it consists of compassion, kindness and understanding. Hence, a descending path represents the exact opposite, a path that mainly focuses its energies upon the physical world that it perceives. For instance, the ascending movement, is a motion from the many to one, a movement in which all forms of manifestations lead back to a single source. A groundless ground, the absolute, through the ascending path, one therefore rises to the comprehension of this. In consequence, it should be noted that Lovejoy concluded that both of these currents, ascending and descending, were united and integrated in the concepts of Plato. However, on the descended grid, salvation in the modern world is represented in the form of pure immanence. There exists no higher truth, no ascending current, nothing transcendental at all, in fact. All which is higher or transpersonal has become evil incarnate, as it opposes the descended grid and fuels the dominance of the descenders. At the beginning of the book, Wilber stated “Whereas ascenders had dominated the scene up to the Renaissance, all it requires was decisive shift in consciousness to unleash the Descending path, which burst forth from its thousand year confinement, exploded on the scene with a creative fury that would remake the entire Western world and in the process permanently substitute one broken God for another.” Conclusively, the descending path is marked by conventional, ecological ideals that pertain to the structure of the modern world, whilst it is a prime contributor to the current ecological crisis. Although evolution itself is a self-correcting agenda, it requires time to operate accordingly.

In conclusion, the difference between both paths appears clear. They are opposite directions. Ultimately, the path determines the view of the phenomenal world partially. Although the mass commonly decides the path of overall consciousness, each individual is provided with the freedom to select their own path. It may be more convenient to remain on the descending path, as the downfall is imminent within the conception, it becomes a self-fulling prophecy. Nonetheless, the individual within such a viewpoint will be confronted with unconscious aspects that they may not be prepared to face, as it differentiates from their conscious belief structures. Nonetheless, each individual will eventually have to select their path within society, as one cannot tread both paths simultaneously without severe contradictions within the personality.

Prior to Time

Wilber explains that the Seer or the Witness is prior to birth, prior to the body, prior even to the Big Bang. It never enters the stream of time. However there is a paradox here. “Prior to” actually means existing first and is therefore a temporal concept! How can this ultimate consciousness be “prior to”, “first”, “unending” etc. when those concepts can only have meaning with relation to time? The concept of the self exists within time and space. It is confined by and thus obeys by its laws and conventions. Yet, the spirit itself in non-linear in nature. It remains outside of the temporal space, as it may. However, Ken Wilbers concept gives rise to a rather significant point within human development. That which is prior the present self and that which is prior to the individual consciousness differs at the core. The source is often referred to as being outside of time itself, thus it would also be of non-local origin. Within Buddhism, the development of the seer, the inner witness becomes imminent in order to attain spiritual enlightenment or Buddhahood. This inner witness is basically a persona within the self that does not identify with present circumstances. It merely observes that which occurs in the present moment. Its response is more often than not one of curiosity. Whereas, another part of the mind may be judging or categorizing the experience, the witness perceives everything from the premise of allowing and trust in an ordered universe. It is represented by an open mental stance, not closed or contracted. In Buddhism, developing the inner observer becomes a foundational element of their teachings. Besides providing support, the observer aid in the management of stress and anger more effectively. Within a reactive state of mind, the body secrets chemicals that cause inflammation, the major cause of degenerative diseases and ageing. By using the witness/observer with its innocence, openness and trust, we can sail through adversity in a healthier way. However, it should be noted that Buddhists, Yogis and Sages spend years meditating upon that very aspect in order for it to emerge more clearly within their mindful practices, which encourage conscious living on a daily basis. Nonetheless, one of the notable differences between Hinduism and Buddhism is that Hinduism holds faith in the existence of the eternal and indestructible soul or Atman, whereas Buddhism does not believe in the concept of the soul or Atman. Most of the speculative philosophies and darshnas or various schools of philosophical thought in Hinduism attempt to answer enquiries, regarding the existence of consciousness and its development. Yet there is no unanimous opinion among them as to the nature of the soul and its relationship with the Absolute. The individual souls are stated to be different from the Absolute. However, this is not an universal standpoint. According to certain traditions, the Absolute does not exist but only individual souls, thus consisting of the Absolute as whole. Among those who believe in the existence of the Absolute, certain individuals believe that the Absolute and the individual souls are the same while others believe them to be different. Furthermore, certain traditions hold that although the Absolute and an individual soul are the same, they do have some subtle dissimilarities which cause them to be distinct. One could conclude that these perceptions are the same from one perspective and different from another. From a rather scientific standpoint, David Bohm perceived that the view of quantum theory and relativity contradicted one another. Conclusively, to him this contradiction implied that there existed a more fundamental level in the physical universe. He claimed that both quantum theory and relativity pointed towards this deeper theory, which he formulated in terms of a quantum field theory. This more fundamental level was proposed to represent an undivided wholeness and an implicate order, from which arises the explicate order of the universe as we experience it. Bohm’s proposed implicate order applies both to matter and consciousness. In addition, he suggested that it could explain the relationship between them. Mind and matter are here seen as projections into the explicate order from the underlying reality of the implicate order. In his attempts to describe the nature of consciousness, Bohm discussed the experience of listening to music. He concluded that the feeling of movement and change that makes up the experience of music derives from both the immediate past and the present both being held in the brain together, with the notes from the past seen as transformations rather than memories. The notes that were implicate in the immediate past are seen as becoming explicate in the present. Bohm viewed this as consciousness emerging from the implicate order. Bohm viewed the movement, change or flow and also the coherence of experiences, such as listening to music as a manifestation of the implicate order. He stated that he derived evidence for this from the work of Jean Piaget in studying infants. He explained that these studies show, young children have to learn about time and space, as they are part of the explicate order, but have a hard-wired understanding of movement, since it is part of the implicate order. He compared this hypothesis of hard-wiring to Chomsky’s theory that grammar is hard-wired into young human brains. Newton’s laws of motion and Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism adequately explain ones everyday, large scale classical world. However, at small scales in the quantum realm (and the boundary between the quantum and classical realms remains mysterious) objects may exist in two or more states or places simultaneously, more like waves than particles and governed by the quantum wave function. This property of multiple coexisting possibilities, known as quantum superposition, persists until the superposition is measured, observed or interacts with the classical world or environment. Only then does the superposition of multiple possibilities reduce, collapse, choose or decohere to specific, particular classical states. Conversely, quantum superpositions and reduction are used technologically in quantum computing. Whereas conventional classical computers represent digital information as bits of either 1 or 0, within quantum computers, quantum information may be represented as quantum superpositions of both 1 and 0. While in superposition, “quantum bits”, as it may, interact with others via the means of nonlocal quantum entanglement, allowing computational interactions of enormous speed and near-infinite parallelism. After the computation is performed the quantum bits are reduced, such as by environmental interaction/decoherence to specific classical bit states which constitute the solution. Quantum computing may be essential for certain tasks, yet what does it mean for an object to exist in multiple places or states simultaneously? The puzzle of quantum superposition baffled science, moreover the fate of isolated superpositions remains unresolved. One solution was put forth by Hugh Everett in his multiple worlds view. Everett’s idea was that superposition is a separation in underlying reality, that the universe at it’s fundamental level splits, or separates, and that each possibility branches off to form a new universe, a new reality. Thus, according to this view, there exist an infinite number of parallel universes corresponding to the infinite number of superposition possibilities which have ever existed. Assuming for a moment that the multiple worlds view is correct. How do we envision the separation of the universe or the individual? How do we envision the structure of reality? At rather small scales, space is not smooth, but quantized. Imagine viewing the ocean from an air-plane. The ocean surface may look perfectly smooth. However if you were in a small boat on the ocean surface you’d be tossed about by the roughness of the sea invisible from high above. Similarly as we go down in scale from the size of atoms (10-8 centimetres) empty space seems smooth until eventually scientists discover granularity at the “Planck scale (10-33 centimetres, 10-43 seconds). There are several types of descriptions of the Planck scale, such as string theory, quantum foam, and loop quantum gravity. In the context of loop quantum gravity, Penrose portrayed the Planck scale as a dynamical spider-web of spin. Taking spin as an irreducible, fundamental entity, spin networks define spectra of discrete Planck scale volumes and configurations which dynamically evolve and define space-time geometry. The amount of potential information in Planck scale spin networks is vast; each Planck scale volume, or pixel of reality may be shaped by huge variability and non-local interactions. In addition, it should be noted that their sheer number is enormous, there are roughly 10107 Planck volumes in the volume of a human brain, far greater than the number of particles in the universe. As previously mentioned, Everett’s multiple worlds view describes separations in underlying reality. For simplicity and illustration one can condense the 4-dimensional space-time with a basement level of Planck scale spin networks into 2-dimensional space-time, consisting of one spatial dimension and one time dimension. This space-time is slightly curved, in accordance with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, in a way which encodes the gravitational fields of all distributions of mass density. Each mass density, each object or particle effects a space-time curvature, albeit tiny for small objects. Consequently we can view any mass in one location as space-time curvature in a particular direction, and location of the mass in a different location as space-time curvature in another direction. Therefore quantum superposition of a particle in two locations may be considered simultaneous curvatures in opposite directions. As in the multiple worlds view, the space-time separates into two opposing curvatures, resulting in a bubble within the underlying reality. In Penrose’s view superpositions, or space-time separations, bubbles are unstable. Ultimately, they will eventually reduce or collapse to one particular curvature or the other. The instability is inherent in the properties of space-time geometry and quantum gravity, constituting an objective threshold for an isolated quantum state reduction, hence objective reduction. In the Penrose formulation, objective reduction due to the quantum gravity properties of fundamental space-time geometry occurs at a time “T” given by the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle E=h/T, in which E is the magnitude of superposition/separation, h is Planck’s constant over 2π, and T is the time until reduction. The magnitude E is related to the gravitational self-energy of the superposition and may be calculated from the amount of mass “separated from itself” and distance of separation. Since E is inversely related to T, small separations/superpositions (if isolated) will reduce at a long time T, and large separations/superpositions (if isolated) will reduce quickly. For example an isolated superpositioned electron would reduce by or only after 10 million years. A large isolated superpositioned object such as Schrödinger’s mythical one kilogram cat would reduce by or after only 10-37 seconds. The point is that Penrose objective reductions are self-organizing events occurring at the level of as well as in the medium of fundamental space-time geometry in which proto-conscious qualia may be embedded. Accordingly Penrose or events could qualify for occasions in a “wider field of proto-conscious experience”. Thus Penrose or events are potentially equivalent to Whitehead “occasions of experience”, Leibniz configurations and in some ways to Barbour’s “Nows”. Nonetheless, events require fairly stringent conditions, such as superpositions and space-time separations must be large enough to reach threshold in a brief enough time period, yet able to be isolated or protected from disruption by environmental decoherence. In quantum computers the superpositioned quantum bits are likely to be electrons of extremely low mass and hence incapable of reaching or threshold in a reasonably short time. Instead, the superposition is interrupted by decoherence when the computation is complete. Thus the threshold is never reached and quantum computers as presently envisioned will not be conscious by this criterion. On the other hand probable events may occur cosmologically due to very large scale superpositions, e.g. in neutron stars, or the early universe. Presumably, these probable events, which would occur at very fast time scales, would lack any organized information and while they may be very briefly conscious would have no cognition, intelligence or memory, which in essence is rather similar to the concept of limited consciousness. Pieces of information that are maintained within the regions of the unconscious, whilst the conscious mind remains aware of only very few bits and pieces. According to Penrose, outcomes selected in probable events are chosen neither randomly nor logarithmically, but non-computably, i.e. influenced by “Platonic values” embedded in Planck scale geometry. As probable selections are non-computable, or non-algorithmic, they are irreversible from the standpoint of classical information. Thus each probable event ratchets forward classical information in space-time, effectively creating conscious perception of a forward flow of time. A sequence of probable events or conscious moments occurring in the brain could therefore give rise to the familiar stream of consciousness. As the previous metaphor of time and space is gradually concluded, the nature of consciousness is unravelled and the concept of time appears less elusive than previously conceived. Yet it is also a widely believed fact that one can experience all of time occurring at once, from a perspective that is outside of space-time itself. A timeless space, as it may. Fred Alan Wolf describes this as a subtle, transpersonal domain that does not adhere to space-time in the manner that this plane of existence does. In accordance with Wilbers viewpoint, the individual consciousness may be bound by memories of life after life after life, once one reaches the deepest layers of the self, one shall discover that which is beyond all. Beyond temporal or spacial confinements. Beyond priority. Beyond fabrics of the phenomenal world. To that which is beyond perception. That which even is beyond existence itself.