The Dreaming Universe

Fred Wolfs Approach on Jungian and Freudian Thought

Dreams appear to break free of space and time limitations. Since the beginning of recorded history, humanity has examined the nature of dreams due to their influence upon waking life. For instance Wolfgang Pauli, who was working towards a theory that would overlap quantum physics and psychology, which was revealed to him by dream images. The holographic model of consciousness and certain concepts from quantum physics has also revealed a great deal of insight towards the mind-body problem. Nonetheless, although dreams had been investigated for thousands of years, Sigmund Freud was most likely the first western researcher that scientifically analysed dreams. Prior to his work, most medical professionals perceive dreams to be hallucinations, which were essentially useless. In contrast to this, Freuds model of dreams stated that they were expressions of the unconscious that had become repressed during early childhood,, after the child expressed wishes that remain unfulfilled. Wishes and desires were therefore strongly represented in dreams and represented yearnings that appeared during the four critical states of growth (oral, anal, phallic and genital). It was Freuds hope that he would be able to identify his clients repressed or buried wishes. Thus images were viewed at the disguised representations of the forbidden desires of the individual. Such a disguise was necessary so that the dreamer would not awaken, thus placing sleep as the primary state of consciousness that vital to human life. In Freuds model of the unconscious, two basic drives or instincts were recognized, which are aggression and eroticism. By 1923, he had replaced them with life and death drives. These drives were in turn attributable to the compulsion to repeat, in regards to habits and repeated patterns. In summary, the ego corresponds to the sense of self that is experienced. Just as Freud offered a structure of the psyche based on mechanism, Jung went further and indicated that the structure had to include meaningful relationships other than those that are time-ordered and cause-effect related. It was Jungs perspective that Freud placed too much emphasis on the erotic element of dreams. He also considered that wish fulfilment was far too small to underlie or be the cause of all dreams. Whereas Freud believed that sleep was the cause and dreams were the inevitable consequence, Jung believed that dreams were primary and seep was a sufficient alteration of consciousness to allow dreams to take place. Jungs model for instance places significant value on the process of individuation, which is a personal development wherein a connection between the centre of the psyche and the ego, the central part of consciousness, occurs. Dreams to him were also a map of possibility. Within the dream state, the observer is not localised to one region of the brain. The observer is distributed throughout the brain, picking up information from several memory locations simultaneously. The quantum wave in the brain is dependent upon all of the possible locations of the observer in order for memory recall in one location to be instantly correlated with other locations, giving rise to meaningful overlaps of that which is usually separated memories.

“Our minds operate mostly unconsciously.”

Freud originally discovered that human beings appear to perform tasks unconsciously. Dreams also appear to operate unconsciously. According to the work of Benjamin Libet, a neurophysiologist, the mind mostly operates unconsciously. In essence, this means, that decisions and responses to sensations are made from the outside world on an entirely unconscious basis. Human beings only become conscious of the phenomenal world approximately half a second later. Interestingly, we refer the late moment of conscious awareness back in time to the moment of sensation and out in space to the location of stimulus, even if it is outside our bodies. This is otherwise known as temporal referral and the latter is known as special referral. For instance, if the brain of a subject is stimulated in a particular area of the cortex, if the individual will feel sensations in the body. The mechanisms by which visual images are reconstructed are located within the brains, neural networks and retinas. In a similar manner, human beings reconstruct from sounds through the vibration of the eardrums and the approximate location of the sound source in space. Libets experiments showed that one might expect a certain amount of delay between the timing of conscious awareness of events, assuming that such awareness can be mapped in time and the time when a stimulus is applied. Libet referred to his theory of consciousness as time-on theory or subjective referral in time. His data showed that an individual, although able to react swiftly to stimuli within a hundred thousandth of a second (one hundred miliseconds) is not actually aware of what the individual is reacting to for several hundred milliseconds, up to a full half second. Yet, when interrogated in regards to the time of awareness, the individual responds as if he or she were aware at the time of the stimulus. His model portrayed that unconscious processes are far more important in our lives that previously imagined. Consequently, a large amount of experience of the phenomenal world is projected from the subjective inner worlds. To grasp Libets findings entirely though, it is necessary to carefully examine the form of the signal as it is detected on the somatosensory cortex. One discovers that it consists of four distinct time zones. The first time zone of the signal is a sharp electrically positive potential that arrives 15ms after the skin stimulus and persists for around 35ms. Libet believed that this pulse served as a time marker, a referral signal for apparent conscious awareness. This is quickly followed by a deep, wide negative potential that persists for around 100ms. Thirdly a low positive hump can be found lasting for around 150 to 200ms, followed fourthly by a shallow negative potential lasting for around 200 to 250ms. All together, the sum of intervals, composes the complex signal that lasts for around 500ms. Conclusively, Libet also showed that there is no conscious sensation of this until the full five hundred millisecond period of the total signal has passed. In other terms, the brain requires to have all of this signal passing into the somatosensory cortex before any awareness of the skin stimulation is consciously felt. If for any reason, certain parts of the signal are blocked, the individual will not be aware of the skin stimulus. In fact, Libet has shown that the S1 response is not even necessary for awareness. When the cortical surface is stimulated, it was found that individuals became aware even though no S1 response was present, thus no one is aware of any stimuli until 500ms have passed.

Purpose of REM

During the day, human beings take in an exponential amount of data. Numerous amount of the input to the brain are of the type described by the neural networks, partial memories that evoke full memories. A certain amount of these inputs, however, eventually cause the interneural connections, via the synapses, to overload. When REM sleep is entered, the dreams are the products of neurons feeding back on themselves without stimuli coming in through the senses. As such, they are negative feedback loops, weakening the strengths of some of the connections with other neurons, similar to the negative weight biasing in the computer networks used by Hopfield et al. Thus, the dreams can turn into erasure modes, helping the individual to become refreshed by making desired or important for survival memories equally accessible and ridding us of undesirable, bizarre memories, those that do not play any role in survival. A major objection is found in experimental studies of individual that are deprived of REM sleep for numerous nights, usually up to one week, one would expect according to theoretical evidence that these individual would exhibit increased periods of fantasy and imagination, possibly even hallucinations. This is because the ‘unlearning’ throughout the night has not taken place and the unwanted memories would not be erased. Although there is some evidence for this, however, the general opinion of researchers is that when human beings or animals are deprived of REM sleep, their behaviour is not affected in any obvious or predictable manner. Waking a dreamer at the onset of REM tends to after several nights produce a rebound effect. It becomes more and more difficult to accomplish. By the end of a weeks deprivation of sleep, the individual enters REM states around fifty times night, suggesting that in these cases the individual may be ‘snatching’ periods of REM during the waking hours. Drug-inducted suppression of sleep is not much better since the medication is known to produce countless side-effects that could mask the result.
It should be noted that certain animals, although they possess larger brains, do not experience REM sleep. Hence, the relatively larger brains of these animals is connected to their lack of REM sleep, as they would require a larger neural network to absorb unwanted associations. This would tend to minimize overlaps in the networks of these animals.

Dreamtime

‘Aborigines believed in two forms of time. Two parallel streams of activity. One is the daily objective reality to which you and I are confined. The other is an infinite spiritual cycle called the dreamtime, more real that reality itself. Whatever happens in the dreamtime establishes the values, symbols and laws of the Aboriginal society. Some people of unusual spiritual powers have contact with the dreamtime.’ In modern times, the aboriginal outlook is still shaped by the dreaming, as it may. Yet, the relationship between dreaming and life remains a problem. Firstly, dreaming must be considered a phenomenon. It is that which is. According to the Puntupi tribes of central Australia, it is a framework for human behaviour. It is a projection into a symbolic space of social processes and it must be related to individuals lives. For the Pintupi, it must also be related to something that transcends everyday life. Dreaming can also be presumed to transcend the space-time of the immediate. The landscape is viewed as tracks of the totemic animal spirits that once walked the earth and by becoming stone themselves, they became the earth. Just as everyday animals leave their tracks ob the ground, these totemic beings leave theirs. In addition, this can be related to the concept of solipsism. In the book, The Secret of Dreaming, Jim Poulter shares a story, which is in actuality a dreamtime recounting of evolution, yet this time evolution has a purpose that transcends mere survival, for each individual dreams of something beyond itself. Poulter believed that this capacity to see beyond oneself, to see into the future, to imagine possibilities that do not seem to exist in the immediate environment, is a unique facette of consciousness. The Spirit constructs existence through this ability in order to go beyond what is to what could be. In other terms, to dream. The reason behind this for Poulter lies in responsibility. The crucial aboriginal concept is the belief that the Big Dream continues, as humanity is awakening to a greater sense of care and responsibility for the future. All humans et to be are waiting in the dreamtime for their births. The astral dimension, as it is also called. Gradually, as evolution proceeds, the responsibility will become clearer that all mankind is a part of a bigger dream of a larger spirit and that the care-taking of ones fellow man should become a necessitated priority. The development of the fetus is a microcosm of the development of the universe itself. It is stated that the fetus goes through every state of life, beginning with the single-celled animal, passing through the final state, complete with gills, all the way up th the present human form. The dreamtime therefore also represents a step towards the meaning of matter. It is to communicate all possibilities to all existences in order for the collective consciousness to attain a higher degree of self-awareness and realisation.

Telepathy

Certain definitions of consciousness are restricted to waking perception processing. Hobson perceived that consciousness is a kind of awareness that may not be only awareness of the outside world but also its representation in the brain. If so, the dream consciousness is definitely an altered state of consciousness. With quantum physics as a metaphorical basis, an insight into the timeless nature of dreams can be gained. Nearly entirely unconscious, the processes of the ID include mental forms that have never been observed as well as memories that have been repressed. These memories unlike the unobserved mental forms, influence the mental and physical life of the individual. It should be noted that during REM periods, the EEG pattern is similar to the waking state pattern. Evidence towards psychic phenomena often involves information that is normally received or experienced in one state of consciousness being made available when the recipient was in another. For instance, the dreamer would become aware of events occurring in waking life. Montague Ullman and others regarded telepathic dreams and the role of dreams in the interconnectedness of the species. Telepathic dreams include dreams of prophecy, links between a dream and an individual in waking life, dreams that connect one dreamer with another, and dreams in which an awake individual attempts to send images to a dreamer. Ullman pointed out that the precognitive dreams are distinguished from telepathic dreams and that even though both are paranormal, telepathy normally refers only to paranormal contact between ones mind and other minds present or past but not future. He also explained that most paranormal dreams are precognitive rather than telepathic. Consistent with the possibility for quantum waves to travel forward, backward and sideways in time. Ordinary or non-telepathic dreams differ from telepathic dreams in only one way. The data that is correlated during the dream. Ordinary dreams usually correlate the days remembered experience with past associations or future expectations contained as memories. They can also introduce anti-correlations as a mechanism to wipe associations or memories that do not serve the survival or the individual or the species. Telepathic dreams are quite different in that they tend to correlate feelings and emotions with space-time events. Closely connected to telepathic dreams is the related issue as theorized by Montague Ullman that dreams serve to help the human species survive with survival of the individual as a secondary but necessary issue.

Relationship Between Dreams And The Physical Body

Implicit in the holographic model is the notion that we sense as out there in the physical world is not as it seems at all. It is reminiscent of the Buddhist idea of impermanence. Nothing within the phenomenal world appears to be permanent or fixed. All remains to be in a state of flux. Solid objects are not really solid at all, they only appear to be such to the human senses. Thus, everything that is sensed is only a passing instance, a glimpse of reality. Virtual images are created as illusions of objects. The light that would be seen, when the virtual image that appears is viewed, which is coming from the image, when it in actuality it is not. Von Franz stated that ‘Whenever the human mind confronts an unknown, it invents symbolic models, drawing on preconscious process of projection. In the history of mankind, we therefore find numerous symbolic representation of the unus mundus. This one world as a continuum consisting of images, as a geometrical continuum or as a numerical structured system. With Einsteins general theory of relativity, mass becomes part of space-time and is unified with energy through the famous equation E=MC2. The idea is to see all of physics as a geometrical continuum, paralleling Jung’s one world concept. So far, science has attempted to look at all processes in the universe in a rational manner has failed to grasp how the material universe could be affected by the processes that resist measurement based on space, time and mass. Yet, it is clearly visible that human behaviour is often determined by the images carried by the individual consciousness. Thus, a body’s symptoms are not to be dealt with purely mechanically similar to pathologies. Instead, symptoms are potentially meaningful and purposeful conditions signalling a phase of life or in order to bring one closer to the centre of existence. Mindell concluded from his patients illness that the condition could be an expression of emotion, which is how the dreambody was developed. It is both a dream and a body. Mindell also states that he not once found a case, in which the individuals dreams did not reflect the body’s symptoms. The dreambody can be related to the physical body in much the same way that the quantum wave function that gives the probability of a particle’s state can be related to the particle’s physical state.

Non-Ordinary Reality

If the imaginal realm is ontologically real, which means that is has objective existential quality as Henry Corbin suggests, then the question is how come only few individuals of the human race have encountered this reality? For Corbin, the imaginal realm was more irrefutable and coherent than the world experienced during the waking state. Beholders of the imaginal realm had reported to him that they were perfectly aware of having journeyed elsewhere. These individuals were not schizophrenic or mentally ill. The world that they had experienced was not fantasy. It was a world with form and dimension and even other life-forms. One may wish to consider the words of Carl Sagan, who believed that there was a connection between dreams and evolution. In shamanistic terms, one may refer to these phenomena as evidence towards a universal mind. The self-reflective mind that knows that it knows. The universal mind knows everything, anything and perhaps surprisingly it knows nothing. Its nothingness is described by Buddhist philosophers and practitioners as the state of pure awareness, consciousness without an object of consciousness. In it, moments, events, fly by as ephemeral flashes like fireflies, but nothing is adhered tom nothing is given any value. In essence, everything is seen as a dream. If the universal mind is a composite of our minds, then how is that composite mind integrated? If the process is akin to a superposition of quantum states of awareness, then the results of that superposition will be another state that does not share in the qualities of the separated states. Only if the minds are decoupled, only if there is something that keeps the patterns in the superposition of the minds from emerging, will there be anything like an objective quality emerging in any single mind at all. Yet, if one were to carry this concept further, given the reality of the universal mind, then the mind separations that produce the results of objectivity are an illusion and as such, the reality of the universal mind will from time to time appear within the individual minds. However, it should be noted that the ability to predict and control nature violates the basic paradigm of science, which is not entirely accurate. Humanity has the capacity to predict and manipulate nature, yet it has its consequences, as noted by the recent polar vortex, which is currently passing through Russia. Nonetheless, Niels Bohr was of the opinion that the complementarity, which existed between the wave and the particle aspects of nature were indications of a much deeper complimentarity in which irreconcilable pairs of opposites need not be contradictory. As he once stated, “the opposite of a small truth may be a lie, but the opposite of a great truth is also a great truth.” In essence, the universal mind would strive towards overall self-realisation of its true nature. The non-ordinary reality merely offers symbolic truth in order to decipher the larger picture and recognize the interconnected nature of the universe.

Sense of Self

Bruce S. Dewitt once stated “The many world interpretation of quantum mechanics reveals a universe that is constantly splitting into a stupendous number of branches, all resulting from the measurement like interactions between its myriad of components. Moreover, every quantum transition, taking place on every star, every galaxy, in every remote corner of the universe is splitting our local world into myriads of copies of itself.” Moreover, there is evidence of brain cellular mitosis occurring, but not in neural cells. Certain studies indicate that the glial cells perform metabolic function, also providing nourishment for neural cells. It should be noted that Albert Einsteins brain autopsy after the time of his death showed a larger than average amount of glial cells associated with his visual cortex. This led countless of individuals to suspect their association with intellect and the enhanced ability to visualise abstract concepts. Nowadays, it has been discovered that dementia severs the connection between the glial cells and neurons, resulting it neuronal death. Studies performed by Karl Lashley between 1920 and 1950 indicated that memory was based on the formation of engrams, which are not localised in specific places but distributed holographically, as it may, throughout the brain. Furthermore, the sense of self is connected to self-awareness through memory and body awareness. With diminished body awareness and volitional control, the self appears to expand, losing its bearings in time and space. In conclusion, there are more than likely thousands of pieces of information and/or images within the glial cell memory. These images are states of quantum physical observables and must follow the rules of quantum superposition. Consequently, any composition of a superposition of states will be complimentary to all other levels. Thus, the secondary images are complimentary to all the primary and tertiary images. The tertiary images are complimentary to all primary and secondary images and so forth. Although a single automaton cannot simultaneously hold multiple images consisting of complimentary observations of another system, it can hold multiple images simultaneously, consisting of complimentary observation of images built up self-reflectively. In other terms, if the images contain the observer as well as the observed, the automaton can recall them. Images of objective, external observations cannot be held simultaneously as the simultaneous knowledge of objective complimentary observables is in violation of the uncertainty principle. Thus to perform the same act with objective images is scientifically impossible, according to quantum physics. In conclusion, an object in a state of self-reflection can hold both truth and its opposite at the same time without the creation of a paradox, while the attempt to determine the same thing results in doubt or uncertainty. It should be noted that any single image will correspond to a specific quantum physical state, while the superposition of images would also correspond to the complimentary physical state of an emotion, thought form, archetype or superarchetype. The automaton could measure and thereby obtain various combinations of images in groups of 1-4 or more of these images, It could obtain a single image or all of the images together, thus constructing the complete superarchetype. Conclusively, the awareness of self is intrinsically linked with the decrease of automatic and mechanical behaviour, resulting in greater choices and becoming more aware of ones own behaviour, dreams, decisions, universe and subsequently of existences in other worlds.

One Single Being

In essence, reality is made of probabilities that can be coherent in order for the possibility to form into solid matter. The dream state is a location, in which the quantum reality becomes especially transparent and the mixture of mind and matter is revealed in a variety of ways. Nevertheless, if we all possess such archetypal images constituting the unconscious minds, these images would be on a deeper level than personal experiences. Conclusively, these archetypes would arise from a more fundamental level of reality. In this sense, the dream becomes more fundamental than the objective reality. Fred Alan Wolf suggests that “When we dream, we return to that reality in order to gain information about how to survive in this reality, yet survival may not be as it seems from a single perspective.” The materialist philosopher believes that consciousness arises from matter. If consciousness exists in matter, then matter is consciousness. Furthermore, everything arises in relation to everything else, reality appears not only interconnected, but also interdependent. Conversely, we as human beings often become afraid when others inform us of that which is real and that which is not. We sense an inner conflict with that which we are told. We feel fear, as we know that the viewpoint of a political system is not consistent with our own standpoint. Communism, capitalism and war is not the answer to the world, it is a tendency towards self-hatred and self-destruction. Whatever we imagine often begins to appear, as if it was called into existence, particularly fearful images, which is reminiscent of a self-fulfilling prophecy created by ones own mind. We create these images as realities because the universe is ambivalent and paradoxical. It is of no matter what is produced, as at the most fundamental level of existence, it is capable of forming reality into whatever images are produced. A famous philosopher once enquired “If we light a candle and walked out of the room, does it still burn?” By this he was trying to highlight that it takes a mind to confirm something’s existence. Existence depends on mind because all of existence occurs within mind. We can know of the existence of our universe only because we have a mind and we can manipulate creation only because we have a mind. Mind is the true cause behind effect and therefore all things are of mental nature. Life is interconnected and is truly capable of being one giant life form that is continually expanding, adapting, and evolving in complexity. The binding force of all life therefore becomes consciousness.

Should Psychology And Physics Be Combined?

There is a breach between the fields of physics and psychology. Indeed, between physics and psychology there is a whole abyss. That is understandable if we take into account the different histories and different goals of each of these disciplines. Yet, it does not have to continue to be so in the future, especially if we take into account the fact that both disciplines aim at expanding our knowledge, if we take into account the fact that in the world around us everything is connected to everything by a communicating vessel. All things seem to be connected either by causal links or, as suggested by a physicist Wolfgang Pauli and psychologist Carl Jung, by some “acausal connecting principle.”
In essence the combination of psychology and physics, otherwise known as psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect. Psychophysics has been described as “the scientific study of the relation between stimulus and sensation” or, more completely, as “the analysis of perceptual processes by studying the effect on a subject’s experience or behaviour of systematically
varying the properties of a stimulus along one or more physical dimensions.” It was founded in the laboratory of German Gustav Fechner, psychophysics is one of the parents of modern experimental psychology. It demonstrated that mathematical analysis could be applied to subjective reports, and that principled relationships could be discovered between physical quantities and subjective impressions.
Let us examine a famous example, Weber’s Law, named after Ernst Weber, a colleague of Fechner’s. This formula describes how changes in the subjective perception of stimulus intensity (e.g. how heavy a weight feels) are related to the actual change in stimulus magnitude (how much something actually weighs). You can look up the mathematics of this if you’re interested, but a plain-language interpretation is that to increase the perceived intensity of a stimulus you need to increase its physical magnitude by a constant proportion, not a constant absolute amount. Imagine that you can make an empty bag feel heavier by putting in a book, yet a single book won’t make a bag full of bricks feel heavier, even though in both cases you are adding the same amount of weight. Weber’s Law gives you a mathematical way to calculate how much you would need to increase or decrease the physical weight to produce a subjective impression of a change in heaviness. It also allows you to compare sensitivity between the senses, showing, for example that we are more sensitive to brightness than loudness, because the proportional change needed to create a noticeable difference for lights is smaller than that needed for sounds. As well as discovering many of the few laws that exist in psychology, psychophysics has generated methods and theories which are applied across all of experimental psychology, not just in the investigation of sensation and perception. In applying scientific measurement to subjective experience, the early psychophysicists were demonstrating a faith in empiricism, but they were also throwing themselves upon a dilemma – the attempt to relate the world of the measurable and objective to the subjective inner world of sensation. That dilemma is still just as relevant and profound today in all areas of psychology, and psychophysics is still vital as a toolkit for addressing it.
Sensory perception and interart research seems to occur these days in the in-between spaces of art history, literature, media studies, anthropology, neurological sciences, and numerous more disciplines that contribute to the exploration of a new aesthetics. This new aesthetics very much includes aesthesis or the study of physiologically and psychologically infused perceptive abilities in the human. Yet, what happened to the term “psychophysics” in this arena? A long-out-of-print volume, Sensory Communication by Walter Rosenblith, based on a 1959 symposium, has recently been reissued by MIT Press. It reminds us of pioneers like Fechner, criticized therein, in the early days of experiential aesthetics and of the nascent fascination with the human-computer interface and AI around the middle of the 20th century. S.S. Stevens poignantly extracts and highlights the ambiguities inherent to research in psychophysics, playing into the qualitative-quantitative divide co-existent with C.P. Snow’s “two cultures”. “It must be confessed at the outset that psychophysics has often failed to do its part of the job [it tells what the organism can do and it asks those who are inspired by such mysteries to advance our understanding of how such wonders are performed] with distinction. Its task is not easy. For one thing, long-standing prejudices, derived in great measure from a chronic dualistic metaphysics, have triggered a variety of stubborn objections whenever it has been proposed that sensation may be amenable to orderly and quantitative investigation. You cannot, the objectors, complain, measure the inner, private, subjective strength of a sensation. Perhaps not, in the sense the objectors have in mind, but in a different and very useful sense the strength of a sensation can, as we shall see, be fruitfully quantified. We must forgo arguments about the private life of the mind and ask sensible objective questions about the input-output relations of sensory transducers as these relations are disclosed in the behavior of experimental organisms, whether men or animals.”
Furthermore, the theory of psychophysical parallelism states that mental and physical experiences occur simultaneously and are not necessarily bound by any causal interaction. The theory was established in the early 19th century by a German philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner, also famous for the Weber-Fechner law. While the psychophysical parallelism definition might seem a bit unclear, the theory is very interesting and is one of few philosophical theories which have been accepted by numerous scientists. To better understand Fechner’s approach to mind-body problem a little historical background would be helpful. In the middle of the 19th century, with a more and more rapid progression of scientific thought, many philosophers became interested in explaining the nature of mind and body interaction. This lead to a famous materialism dispute as the opponents of metaphysical philosophy gained many supporters (Vogt, Büchner, Moleschott). Materialistic approach to mind-body dichotomy was at that time seen as very radical, and some of its points still cause much controversy in the 21st century. One of Carl Vogts more memorable quotes around the time was most likely his statement that “Thoughts issue from the brain just as gall is produced by the liver or urine by the kidneys.” Consequently, are our thoughts just like other bodily fluids which are generated in a similar way as numbers in computer programmes? Are we just very sophisticated machines? Gustav Fechner claimed to be able to give the solution to materialism debate. His theory, known as psychophysical parallelism, was first mentioned in 1820s but it was not until 1860 that his approach became widely known, thanks to his mature work Elements of Psychophysics. There are many misconceptions about the meaning of psychophysical parallelism. Countless individuals seem to confuse it with occasionalism, pre-established harmony and Cartesian doctrine of two non-interacting substances. You may read on other websites that psychophysical parallelism is a theory established by Leibniz. It is true that psychophysical parallelism is partially congruent with Leibniz’s theory of non-causal conformity of the soul and the organic body. However, a very important difference is that Fechner rejected any theological grounds for his theory and therefore, even though psychophysical parallelism is a dualistic conception, by no means should it be confused with statements made either by Descartes or Leibniz. Fechner’s theory states that while mental and physical states are not causally dependent they are functionally dependent. What does it mean? It means that to every mental event there is a corresponding brain event. It does not claim causal interaction, it does not deny it. It refrains from explaining the nature of mind and body. It is a very open paradigm. By many it is treated as a good and neutral foundation for more detailed explanations of the nature of mind and body problem albeit the theory itself does not answer many questions.
In other terms, psychophysics attempts to understand the relationship between a physical stimulus and the psychological impression it creates or how the physical world influences the mind. The connection between perception and psychophysics is that perception is one of the constructs examined in the psychological part of the equation. Psychophysics uses quantitative measurements to analyze the relationship between the sensations and perceptions caused by stimuli. The relationship between perception and psychophysics is an important one in that what a person perceives to be so is not always indicative of the stimulus. Stimuli possess different properties which affect whether a person is aware of them or not and dictate their identification. The degree of difference between stimuli will affect whether they are distinguishable or not and to what magnitude a stimulus needs to reach before judgment of similarity and difference can be made.
There are three methods used to measure perception in psychophysics. They are magnitude estimation, matching and detection or discrimination. In magnitude estimation, the subject is required to rate a stimulus on how bright or loud it is on a scale. Matching requires the subject to find the stimuli which are similar in look, sound or pitch. In detection, the subject is asked to discriminate between small differences in intensity or whether a light was flashed or a sound played. Two important terms used in perception and psychophysics are the “absolute threshold” and “difference threshold.” Absolute threshold refers to the smallest detectable amount of stimulus energy, and the difference threshold, or just noticeable difference, refers to the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli.
One of the most important precepts in perception and psychophysics is Weber’s Law which states that the difference threshold between two stimuli is proportional to the baseline or starting intensity. That is, if a small increase in intensity is applied to a small parameter, then that increase can be detected. However, if that same small increase is applied to a larger parameter, it will no longer be detectable.
More and more studies, while not disproving altogether Woody Allen’s theory that the brain is the second most important organ, continue to amass evidence to the contrary. In a paradoxical twist, the field of Psycho-Physics may yet reveal that what we think about disorders in the brain may actually have a greater impact on the brain than their treatment, even the disorders themselves. In fact, what we now perceive as abnormal may soon be the new normal. Recent technologies, along with new diagnostic procedures, are so sophisticated that if there is even the possibility of a disorder, or the need or desire for one, it can be detected. This has raised new questions about the nature of consciousness and the impact of thought on the treatment of mental disease. Indeed, on the proposed invention of it.
This re-visioning of how we think casts a not inconsiderable shadow over the mental health profession regarding a possible bias against the individual psychic disposition. Statistics show that abnormalities in the brain have increased significantly with modern treatment, and this has left some experts to wonder if part of the problem might not be obscured in a broad and all-inclusive classification system. Owing to vague definitions and bloated latitudes, they charge, the individual is viewed as a “mere aggregate of eccentricities.” According to self-reports, the average treatment of twelve sessions per mental health consumer indicated substantial progress. Studies by competitors of those undergoing treatment for extended periods, however, showed actual recovery rates similar to those with no treatment at all. Some conditions even deteriorated with more treatment, prompting many to call for a revaluation of criteria. Insiders reveal that cases are presumed cured only upon depletion of the consumer’s bank account: when the aforesaid is enabled to independently obtain the necessities of existence: twice the mortgage affordable under the most ideal economic conditions, insurance-poverty, and self-medication when feeling overwhelmed. Independent follow-up studies by law firms representing creditors and maxed-out family members, however, found that ninety per cent of consumers returned for more treatment within two years. The discovery that they had minds, yet not knowing what to do with them, sent them back to work in such off-balanced whirlwinds of nervous energy that resuming therapy was a priority even after having gone destitute paying for it in the first place. Recidivism rates compared with those of penitentiary internment. This has led some to suggest a possible “addiction to therapy.”
Crime rates, likewise, didn’t vary significantly between the two groups with one notable exception. Those who underwent treatment before incarceration, once out of a facility, tended to commit more heinous crimes than those whose social stations hadn’t permitted therapy. Once in the system, those under such loose parameters as bible-studies, hand-basket weaving as a means of spiritual contact with the underworld were slightly less violent upon release than those undergoing formal therapy. Psycho-Physics has recently emerged as one of a handful of new approaches which have begun to question the uncritical piling up of statistical data in support of the health industry’s interests along with Eye Rotation Therapy and Tapping. Psycho-Physics is discarding the conventional mantle of scientific pretense for more holistic models which address the individual through pledged commitments to wishful thinking and the power of suggestion.
According to Dr. Aylien Creacher of the Institute for Modern Solipsism stated that “Psycho-Physics proper began with my historical studies of individuality. “Psycho” meaning of course, “crazy”, was combined with “physics”. Greek for “out there”, which also included projected ideas of the body to describe a process of self-examination applied by the individual through the use of concepts designed to free the true personality from the Procrustean bed of modern theory. At the core of Psycho-Physics is the concept of projection. Certain feelings and inner experiences confirm it as psychologically meaningful; however, it cannot be scientifically proven to actually exist. The subjective nature of it makes it relative to the individual in all cases. “Since it is recalcitrant to objective appraisal, it’s seldom employed as a conscious tool for assessment. This ensures that its negative effects work unconsciously. The evaluation of one subjective attitude by another automatically assumes the nature of a value judgment. To regard such projections as belonging only to the consumer and not the practitioner, for example, leads to quite arbitrary conclusions and is therefore scientifically untenable, not to say intellectually unethical. The definition of projection presupposes its functioning in all minds, regardless of personal fantasy. In point of fact, the practioner’s projections actually self-replicate based on the very design of the process itself. The principle of negative sums predicts that the practitioner’s projections will exceed those of others involved.” In conclusion, all the examples of scientific research above have clearly shown that psycho-physics, although it has become distributed and separated amongst numerous sectors and titles, continues to result in discoveries that allow for a greater insight into the nature of mind and matter. One may only dream of that which could be possible, if mankind were to concentrate their focus towards the actual merging and development of the two as a scientific discipline.

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Shamanic Physics

The Observer Effect

According to the first hypotheses of the relationship between modern physics and shamanic practices, Fred Alan Wolf concluded that all shamans perceive the universe as being made from vibrations. Within physics, vibrations are repetitive patterns that can be observed in the simplest physical systems. That being said, from the movement of sound through the air to the invisible vibrations of light waves speeding through the universe are all evidence of vibrational motion. Consequently, Wolf discovered that there were even more subtle vibrations, which were contained in the probability waves of subatomic and atomic matter. These waves possess a vibrational pattern, yet they also play a key role in determining how probable physical events are to take place. Whenever in time or wherever in space an event manifests are governed by the strength and amplitude of these waves. Quantum waves are invisible. They are constructs of human thought necessary for the modern world to enable an understanding of atomic and subatomic matter. For any event to manifest, these waves coming from the future and the present or from the past and the present must interfere with each other in the present. The Anglo-Saxon Shamans themselves viewed the universe as a web consisting of vibrating strings. However, when contemplating the observer effect, which in essence describes that the act of observation alters the phenomena of being observed, one should be aware that the quantum system itself would not be able to operate in the same manner, if it was to be observed as a whole. It is known that quantum waves exist through space and even beyond time. In addition, they are possess the capacity affect matter. Yet, most individuals neglect that there would have to be an intelligence behind the observed for it to alter its behaviour. In the Bohr interpretation of quantum physics, these waves would vanish the instant any observation of matter occurred. In fact, the observation was imagined as the sudden collapse of the wave producing a particle of matter. According to Paulis exclusion principle, electrons have the ability to exclude each other from entering each others territory. Atomic energy structures are possible only due to electric exclusion. According to Pauli, photons, particles of light, possess the ability to include each other. They are able to enter each others territory and in fact have a strong tendency to do so, thus the phenomena is termed photon inclusion, which resulted in the development of laser technology that would not be able to operate outside of this fact. Henceforth, during an altered state of consciousness, the observer of a quantum system disturbs the system by the mere act of observing it.

Difference Between Resonance and Vibration

According to the teachings of the Quabala, the universe was constructed from vibrational sound patterns of three Hebrew letters, which are “aleph”, “mem” and “sheen” in an interplay of spirit, matter and consciousness. That which is known as consciousness is consistent of waves of information that move from spirit into matter and then back into spirit. This flow of waves took place outside of time. In the sense that the whole action of that movement was instantaneous. According to quantum physics, any conscious experience also results from a double movement of a wave action. This wave action also occurs beyond space and time. It is a wave of possibilities, that is known as quantum wave function. It moves from the present to the relevant time and then returns to the present moment. As shamans chant sacred songs and chants in order to invoke spirits of all kinds, the connection between sacred chants and the language used by, for instance, Qabalists. Often, a resonant transfer of vibrational energy from one individual to another is symbolized during rituals and practices. In countless traditions, healing is also viewed as a transfer of vibrational energy within the body. When the body falls ill, parts of it are out of harmony with the rest of it. All organs and cells vibrate. Hence, the practice of radionics has become more widespread within Western Medicine. It is often believed that when an organ is no longer receiving vibrational energy from the rest of the body, it is vibrating at another or the wrong frequency, thus it is out of harmony with that which nurtures it. Therefore, healing could simply consist of reinvoking those sacred sounds within the body, which is very similar to the practice of Atharveda within Hinduism. For instance, in the shamanic tradition, the chanting of the world “wolf” would invoke the presence of the wolf itself. Thus if one sang the name of a wolf in a sacred manner, a wolf would appear. Shamans do not simply view things interacting with things producing a cause and effect relationship, yet they view it as a web of interconnectedness, which is very close to the kind of interconnectedness that can be observed in old fashioned and present day quantum models. In physics, this is referred to as non-locality, which describes actions taking place in one location can instantly affect actions in an entirely different location. The process of energy resonating within the hunter that may attract animals of prey, such as a wolf, deer or even edible type of bear. In conclusion, resonance vibrations would differ from individual to individual. One may even hypothesize that it could be unique to the individual. However, vibrational modes of the body can be altered by stress and illness. Thus, when the resonance of the body is adjusted to attain a homeostatic state, the body would attune to the sound and harmonize.

Purpose of Shamanic Ritual/Initiation

Shamans will utilize any device to alter a patients belief in regards to reality. Whilst doing so, the shaman can also choose that which is physically meaningful and see all events as being universally interconnected. There are two important events in the consciousness strand of the web between a shaman and the individual that is in need of shamanic healing energies. Both events are observed in a testing ceremony. The first event is when the shaman convinces himself or herself that he or she possess a genuine shamanic power. Shamans are ordinary human beings themselves, therefore they must test themselves every single time they conduct a healing ceremony. The second event occurs when the individual that is expecting to be healed in convinced that the shaman has the power to do so. In conclusion, there are two event points, as it may, of consciousness that are required in order for the shaman to be true. Both individuals, client and shaman, require the belief that this special kind of power is being held by the shaman. Therefore, in the world of the shaman and his patient, a particular initial event, which acts in the manner of convincing both parties, and a particular final event, which convinced the patient that the shaman is in possession of healing powers, must be meaningful for both partners in this dance of healing. All of Wolfs hypotheses point toward the observer effect. The patient is required to be prepared. According to quantum rules, the rules that govern the behaviour of matter, an observer must prepare the state of the system that he or she hopes to observe. It is merely logical that the patient, the individual necessitating the healing, would be required to prepare his or her own mind and body in a manner significant to the ritual. According to the Jungian model of psychology, there are four separate psychological functions. Thought and feeling represent two complimentary functions, as do intuition and sensations. Wolf conceived a model of the Jungian functions based on quantum physics. Accordingly, a thought is complimentary to a feeling in the same manner that the position and the momentum of a particle causes the position of it to become indeterminant and vice versa. In a similar manner, it is not possible to simultaneously hold a thought and feeling about something. One causes the other to become indeterminant. Jung noted that during personality development that one function can often mature at the expense of another. Henceforth, during rituals such as firewalking or swallowing lighted butter lamps, shamans will literally perform almost any action in order to convince the client to change their belief structure. Although shamanic practitioners are very sincere, they can use gullibility or psychedelic beverages, such as ayahuasca, and any form of trick to alter their clients own consciousness in order for them to accept the existence of a power, an archetype from the imaginal realm, which is more profound that the clients own mind.

Shamanism & Geomancy

Geomancy is a traditional way of divination based on intuitive contact with the subtle energies of the Earth. It belongs to a large family of divinatory methods founded on that which modern mathematicians refer to as binary or base 2 numbers. The most well known of this family is most likely the I Ching, also referred to as the book of changes. The principle underlying these methods are universal, as certain random or quasi random events can be made to produce one of two definite results. To the geomancer, the entire world was a pattern of meanings that could be caught by the perceptive eye and interpreted by the attentive mind. Certain locations upon planet earth have been even assigned essences and personalities. Along my travels, however, I have encountered one which is still significantly potent. Due to the recent electromagnetic changes of the earth, perhaps even more so. It is the Isle of Thanet. Otherwise known as the isle of death, the hiding place of the white witches and the dumping ground of great Britain for centuries. Yet, it’s essence is clearly felt. Winston Churchill remarked upon the eerie nature of the former island. It should be noted that these places of power have different types of energy associated with ancient sites. These are not only ley lines, there is also another form of spiritual geography. It is possible to measure additional geophysical properties in these other sites. For instance, prehistoric stone structures in Cornwall showed radiation anomalies, which could either be reminiscent of an ancient nuclear war that has been evidenced around other prehistoric structures on the globe.
There are two forces acting within us. The quantum force of the electron exclusion tends to keep things separated. The quantum force of photon inclusion tends to bring things together. Between these two forces of exclusion, which enables atoms to form all of the molecular to communicate with each other and vibrate synthetically, human life exists. It could therefore be argued that as all is composed of energy, it is probable that locations, certain time frames and even individuals possess unique energies, which in turn define, yet also reveal, the nature of the before mentioned object or subject in question. Conclusively, shamanic physics is the entire nature of geomancy. Humankind has been sensitive to the subtle energies of locations for centuries, it is only in the last hundred years that mankind has slowly faded out that very ability through the lack of utilizing it. In modern times, steel frame buildings uilt on an economic bias have come to replace the ancient geomantic bias. Perhaps this loss of ability has occurred due to the desire to coomunicate with one another over vast distances and hold energy as well as power at ones fingertips. The electromagnetic spectrum has extended into mankinds sensorium, as it may. It provides information, heat, and illuminates dark spaces. The lack of usage of geomancy has caused the ability to utilize it to degenerate, as the imaginal realm vanishes into fantasy.

Five Senses

The first five senses of humanity are normal ones. Then one has to consider the imaginal senses. The sense of self-healing, the sense of self-destruction, the sense of penetration, to be able to penetrate other levels, other worlds and other dimensions, the sense of perception, to be able to see and comprehend that which one perceives in those other worlds. And the sense of revelation, to be able to use that which one has perceived as it has been revealed. These are the ten senses that the Chumash work by. There appears to be principles of life based on the mind that have been lost throughout history. These are principles of healing that appear to be universal in essence. It should be noted that mechanical action occurs when life becomes unconscious. As if it becomes dead in its thinking by becoming mechanical in operation. Yet, the mind creates mechanical action by creating least action paths, as Wolf describes it. These paths became the unconscious mind. The body-mind which attends the survival of the individual. The consciousness, the spirit itself, is a very significant part of healing, which in modern medicine is often neglected. Within Buddhism, similarly to shamanism, all illness arises from three root poisons. Attachment, Aversion and Ignorance. The metaphorical gesture of removing the illness, by sucking on the head for instance and then spitting it out, for instance, utilize visualization and healing that has travelled to the corners of Western civilisations by mere efficiency without being directly or indirectly related to shamanism. The imaginal realm has a rather important, yet more often than not overlooked, role within modern society. Out of these five imaginal senses, certain ones are generally trained better. For instance, black shamans are often advised to take caution, when it comes down to cursing individuals, as their ability to heal diminishes and eventually vanishes. The sense of self-destruction, which is often known as self-sabotaging, can be overcome through the sense of self-healing and a sense of revelation. This is rather reminiscent of Jungs and Freuds wish for death and wish for life, which could easily be interpreted as that imaginal sense as well as desire for healing as well as destruction. Perhaps the desire for death represents the yearning to return to a state of complete or true enlightenment. The desire to return to a non-physical state of being. For instance, through the sense of self-healing, the shaman can also attain the knowledge of how to heal and help others, the shaman could for instance produce a healing vibration in the patients body. When the patient tunes into the vibration, they are healed. Wolf suggested that this act of tuning would most likely be related to the vibrational frequency of a quantum wave of probability. The frequencies of these waves are related to the energies of the particles, which tend to manifest where the wave interference patterns are thickest. The lowest frequency waves would therefore have very long wave-lengths.

Time-Travel & Dimensional Travel

Shamanic practitioners have been able to reach a state of consciousness, which is reminiscent to sleep. Scientists have identified the brain wave pattern to be theta. Through this trance state, they remain awake. They have shifted their perception, whilst recognizing that their consciousness is not confined to their bodies. They see consciousness in everything. By choosing to observe themselves as spirits traveling over telephone wires or floating in thunderclouds, they are tuning to the consciousness in these objects. This is more or less an extended self-observation and that is precisely that which one must practice in order to regain ones lost senses and travel more effectively. Everything in nature undergoes self-observation. It is a process wherein each observer defines that which is outside of his or her self. The key here is learning to extend that which one calls the self beyond the normal boundaries. Self-observation occurs even in atoms. The atom exists in stable energy patterns known as states. In order to maintain a state of energy, the atom must recognize itself, observe itself to be in a state. If one considers that an observation is an interaction involving a transition between two states, the observer state and the observed state. When an object is being observed in the outside world, according to quantum physics, the state of the object suddenly takes on a discrete value. It appears in the world. And simultaneously, one becomes aware of it. If one considers that objects are not truly solid, the atoms of the object would more than likely alter their behaviour. One may consider the analogy of Hitchhikers Guide to the Universe at the Restaurant at the End of the Universe. Nevertheless, the atom continually checks its energy state by constantly involving itself in its environment, even if the environment is simply empty space. Actually the electrons in the atom and constantly dancing, as it may, with the photons of light that they emit. Therefore, they are continually emitting and absorbing, or even observing themselves. “Consciousness requires minimum stimulation time of 0.5 seconds {neuronal adequacy}, no matter what the intensity.” [Eccles, 1965] Additionally, it is also known that mankind functions largely on an unconscious basis, one may not be entirely aware of the interactions and travels that occur. According to variant aspects of shamanism all agree upon one single reality. Within this one single reality without past, future or the passage of time, it is likely that only the present moment would exist. Time, therefore, is not merely illusory, it is also simultaneous. Yet, the words of Fred Alan Wolf seem more fitting in this context “The ability to transcend the death of the body-mind by the intent of the shaman alone to convince the underpart to form an ally, to become an accomplice, in it’s own death.” The ego technically becomes an accomplice in its own removal during the process of self-actualization or enlightenment.
Hypothesis: Increased energy signatures due to a form of energy transfer around certain periods of chronological time, as civilisations were more prone to observing the past and the future, which would technically linger within the neural cell memory or even genetic sub-code, as a kind of latent psychic ability, as it may.

Quantum Physics of Death

“There is more suffering the farther you go. The deeper you seek, the more you suffer, yet the greater is your gain, your insight and your vision.” Death, in essence, is a doorway. It represents a transition of consciousness within the quantum system. When the body is convinced that it is dying, the mode of reality perception shifts. It must, for the usual mode of perception, the one that have all acquired in life, is no longer carrying out its prime function, keeping the body alive. In Wolfs model of reality, the sensory apparatus perceives more than one is actually aware of. That which is perceived as being non-threatening is simply ignored. It is there, however. Within society. There are countless true dangers. Humanity lives in a highly artificial situation. We have dangerous means of moving ourselves at high speeds from one location to another. In an airplane, even though we may manage to fall asleep, we are constantly aware of the probability of danger. The same is true for a car, which is moving at high speed along the highway, or even in a house with electrical appliances surrounding the individual on a daily basis. The danger, however, is mollified rather severely. Each moment that passes without a negative event occurring soothes the individual into a false sense of security, although the danger is rather apparent. Once the individual has separated oneself from their natural environment, it takes approximately a week until the consciousness has adjusted to the situation and develops senses to aid the survival of the new circumstance. Nevertheless, within the Tibetan Book of the Dead, there are instructions on how to provide for the spirit after it has departed the body and is in a disorientated state. When an individual dies, they have to be incredibly evolved and powerfully oriented in order to move outside the body and overcome the sudden state of disorientation. The practice in shamanism is rather similar, as it utilizes a rubber hammer and tap the deceased on the head three times, then they begin to talk to him.
If one considers the holographic universe paradigm, one will notice that a hologram contains multiple images. By changing the light source that illuminates the hologram, different images will appear. The hologram has encoded in it a series of possible images. That which is seen is dependent upon how it is seen. However, similar to a hologram, one must know that to look for when experiencing a spirit. Senses that have been developed beyond the physical. In Einsteinian relativity the observers in relative motion would measure time and space intervals differently. If one were to consider whether the observer was moving superluminally, which is faster than the speed of light. According to relativity, the observer could not have a mass. In other terms, he could not be made of matter, as modern science could understand it. If the imaginal time passed perpendicular to time, therefore the individual could technically be reborn at the time of death.

Group Consciousness

A wise man once stated “We judge as we possess ego. Without ego, you cannot judge.” The absence of judgement itself is perceived as being a state of love. As discussed in the book, truth and love are synonymous, in essence. Conclusively, a reality, which is based upon the principle of interconnectedness would be similarly based upon the conception of unconsciously linking the psyche of a species. In contrast to a hive mind, the connection would be unconscious and would surface in circumstances of survival, extreme emotion or superior revelation. In consequence, I recently stumbled upon an article, which illustrated a neurocognitive epistemological perspective of shamanism and its effects upon the human mind. The biological foundation for a shamanic epistemology is indicated by the cross-cultural distribution of a shamanic cosmology derived from knowledge obtained during altered consciousness. These special forms of consciousness involve integrative brain conditions that access ancient ways of knowing, expressive systems which have evolutionary roots in the communicative and social processes involved in animal displays or rituals. These were augmented over the course of hominid evolution into expressive and mimetic activities that provided a basis for significant epistemological expansions of consciousness exemplified in shamanic out-of-body (OBE) experiences. These manifestations of consciousness involved new modes of self and processes of knowing, reflecting selection for expanded symbolic brain processes that enhanced psychological, cognitive integration and extra-personal cognition. Shamanic alterations of consciousness also contributed to experiences of personal spirit essences and encounters with extrapersonal spirit presences that reflected activation of innate brain operators involving self-structures and psyche. The evolution of the hominid capacity for knowing involved new understandings of nature (animism), mind (spirits), self (power animals) and others (gods) that were elicited by shamanic practices and expressed though a shamanistic ideology. These phenomena reflect activation of innate aspects of consciousness, illustrating features of shamanism as a neuroepistemology. Shamanism has conceptualized special forms of knowing embodied within the shamanic consciousness. The article related this phenomena to collective dimensions of consciousness that serve as a conscience of the universal mind. Winkelmann stated in another one of his academic papers on shamanism that “The ancient biological bases of shamanic rituals and their adaptive functions are illustrated by understandings of the nature of animal ritual, as provided in such works as The Spectrum of Ritual (d’Aquili et al., 1979) and Supernatural as Natural: A Biocultural Theory of Religion (Winkelman and Baker, 2008). An evolutionary biological approach to ritual illustrates that shamanic rituals have ancient roots and were built out of prior adaptations revealed in the homologous behaviors humans share with other species.
As shamanism is in favour of the existence of consciousness within all objects, I came across an old experiment that I thought rather relevant in regards to group consciousness that I recently rediscovered. In 1973, a collection of these ideas and out-of-the-box experiments involving plants was published in the book The Secret Life of Plants by Peter Tompkinsand Christopher Bird. The book covers a wide range of topics related to plant life touching on the subjects of soil treatments, plant auras, force fields, plant communication, electromagnetism and extrasensory perception (ESP). In the chapter dedicated to Plants and ESP, the authors focus on the findings of the polygraph scientist Cleve Backster‘ (b.1924). In 1966, Backster was anInterrogation Specialist collaborating with the CIA in lie detection when out of curiosity he decided to attach the electrodes of one of his lie detectors to the leaf of his Dracaena. Backster intended to verify if the leaf would be affected by water poured on to its roots, and if yes, how soon. As the plant was sucking the water up its stem, the galvanometer didn’t indicate any changes. Instead of trending upwards like Backster expected, the pen on the graph was actually trending downwards. But it was what happened in the following minutes that changed Backster’s life and worldview. Being a veteran examiner on polygraphs, Backster knew that the most effective way to make the galvanometer jump was by making the person taking the test feel threatened. He decided to do the same with the plant, starting by dunking a leaf of the Dracaena in a hot cup of coffee, but with no results on the graph. Backster started to think about what would be the worst threat to the life of a plant – the imagery of fire came up in his mind, and at that precise moment the graph made a sudden upward sweep. Backster had made no movements toward the plant or toward the polygraph. Could the plant have been reading his mind? Or were they simply more aware than he was?
One group of parapsychological studies, the ganzfeld studies, have received more recent publicity, in terms of published articles examining the overall effect of the database, than has any other area of psi research. This attention is the result of detailed meta-analyses of the ganzfeld studies by a leading ganzfeld researcher, Honorton, and a critic of this work, Hyman. “Experimental Evidence Suggestive of Anomalous Consciousness Interactions” was published by the Department of Psychology in Edinburgh by Deborah L. Delanoy. The ganzfeld debate, often referred to as the “Honorton/Hyman debate”, will be summarised below, but first a brief description of a ganzfeld study will be presented. The ganzfeld technique consists of presenting a relaxed percipient with homogenous, unpatterned visual and auditory stimuli, which assists in increasing the mental imagery experienced by the percipient. While receiving this stimulus, the percipients verbalise all their experiences, their goal being to gain impressions which will relate to a sensorially isolated and remote target picture or short video clip. The “target” is being watched frequently by another person (a “sender” or “agent”) who is attempting mentally to convey impressions of the target to the percipient or “receiver”. These studies utilise a “free-response” methodology, in which the contents of the target material are unknown to the receiver (i.e., the percipient is “free” to respond with whatever impressions they generate, as he or she has no information regarding the specific contents of the possible target). The most common method of analysis used in ganzfeld studies is for the percipient or an independent judge(s) to compare the obtained impressions to four different target pictures/video clips, one of which is a duplicate of the actual target, looking for similarities. Using blind procedures, the judge has a one in four chance of correctly identifying the actual target (i.e., mean chance expectancy = 25 per cent “hit” rate). Study outcome is based upon whether similarities between the percipient’s impressions and the actual target enabled the target to be correctly identified significantly more often than chance would allow. For further information regarding this experimental technique, procedural details and methods of analysis, see Honorton, and Honorton et al. A meta-analysis of twenty-eight ganzfeld studies was performed by Honorton (1985), in response to a flaw analysis of the ganzfeld database conducted by Hyman (1985). Hyman found a highly significant overall effect in the database, but concluded that this effect was negated as he found a significant relationship between the study outcomes and procedural and statistical flaws contained in the studies. However, Hyman’s flaw categorisations were severely criticised by Honorton, and a psychometrician, Saunders, found faults in Hyman’s statistical analyses. Honorton’s meta-analysis found there were no significant relationships between study outcomes and quality. The overall composite (Stouffer) z score for the 28 ganzfeld studies included in the Honorton meta-analysis was highly significant (z = 6.6, p < 10-9, two-tailed). The effect sizes were homogeneous, overall and across experimenters. The discrepancy between the Honorton and Hyman analyses of the ganzfeld studies prompted a further meta-analysis by Rosenthal, an independent specialist in meta-analysis. Like Honorton, Rosenthal found an overall composite z score of 6.60 for the twenty-eight ganzfeld studies. His file drawer estimate agreed with that of Honorton, requiring 423 unreported, null studies to negate the significance of the database. Here it is worth noting that another critic, Blackmore conducted a survey to discover the number of unreported ganzfeld studies in 1980, prior to the Honorton/Hyman debate. Her survey found 32 unreported studies, of which 12 were never completed, and one could not be analysed. Of the remaining 19 studies, 14 were judged by Blackmore to have adequate methodology, with 5 of these (36 percent) reporting significant results. She concluded that “the bias introduced by selective reporting of ESP ganzfeld studies is not a major contributor to the overall proportion of significant results”. Rosenthal, after considering the possible influence of various flaws upon study outcome, concluded that the overall hit rate of the studies could be estimated to be 33 percent, whereas chance expectancy was 25 percent. In 1986 Honorton and Hyman published a “Joint Communiqué” in which they agreed that there was an overall effect in the database, but continued to disagree as to what extent this effect may have been influenced by methodological flaws. In their communiqué they outlined the necessary methodological precautions that should be taken to avoid the possibility of future studies giving rise to the same level of debate that had surrounded the previous ones. They concluded that more studies needed to be conducted, using the controls they had documented, before any final verdict about the database could be reached. Honorton and his research team proceeded to design a new ganzfeld system which met the criteria he and Hyman had specified in their communiqué. This system, and studies using it, are referred to as “autoganzfeld studies”, as much of the procedure is under automated computer control in order to avoid the problems found in some of the earlier studies. Before Honorton’s lab closed in 1989, 11 experimental series, representing 355 sessions, conducted by eight experimenters, had been collected using the autoganzfeld. Honorton et al. published a summary of the autoganzfeld studies and compared them with his earlier meta-analysis. The autoganzfeld sessions yielded overall significant results (z = 3.89, p = 0.00005), with an obtained hit rate of 34.4 percent (with 25 percent being chance expectancy). The effect sizes by series and by experimenter were both homogeneous. Comparing the autoganzfeld outcomes to those of the 28 studies of the earlier meta-analysis revealed very similar outcomes, with the autoganzfeld showing slightly better ESP scoring than that obtained in the earlier studies (autoganzfeld results by series: effect size or es = .29, earlier 28 meta-analysis studies by experiment: es = .28). Hyman, in 1991 [20] commenting upon a presentation of these results by the statistician, Utts, concluded that “Honorton’s experiments have produced intriguing results. If, as Utts suggests, independent laboratories can produce similar results with the same relationships and with the same attention to rigorous methodology, then parapsychology may indeed have finally captured its elusive quarry.”. Replications are currently being undertaken at various
labs; the only replication using a full autoganzfeld environment which has been reported to date was conducted at the University of Edinburgh [21], where the obtained significant, overall hit rate was 33 percent (z = 1.67, p < 0.05). This outcome is consistent with Honorton’s autoganzfeld scoring rate of 34.4 percent, and replicates Rosenthal’s hit rate estimate based on the earlier ganzfeld studies. The procedure for the Edinburgh study incorporated additional safeguards against subject and experimenter fraud. In conclusion, the findings from these meta-analyses suggest that consistent trends and patterns are to be found in the database. The consistency of outcomes found in the ganzfeld research, the robust PK effects, the modifying variables revealed by the precognition database, the variety of target systems displaying DMILS effects and the correlations found with personality traits are all indicative of lawful relationships. Given these relationships it is difficult to dismiss the findings as “merely an unexplained departure from a theoretical chance baseline”. Whether these effects will prove to represent some combination of currently unrecognised statistical problems, undetected methodological artifacts, or, as seems increasingly uncharacteristic of consciousness. Now, if one were to consider the ganzfeld effect in relation to group consciousness one may be able to imagine that the units that humanity have come to form would connect on a deeper level. For instance, race consciousness. Without any racial bias, african americans would naturally feel more drawn to and understood by their own kind. Yet, once one has gotten passed race, one could view the connection to ones gender as a form of consciousness, as it is consistent of a unique identity. Would it not be possible that individuals that believe or are drawn to the same archetype would be drawn to individuals with similar beliefs due to the law of attraction? Or even to its exact opposite, dependent upon the individual. Nonetheless, once one has moved beyond those groups, one arrives at the collective of the species, which would be innately responsible for the survival of the species, however what if life in this universe would be threatened and almost all alien and humanoid races were to be driven to near extinction, would the collective consciousness of all remaining beings not be focused towards survival in order for the dream to persist, as it may? But then, if all beings were to pass on around the same time, leaving not one being alive, would the dream truly persist for another billion years until new, intelligent life is created? Or would the focus shift towards sub-atomic or atomic life? If one considers the concept of group consciousness, which is probable from a quantum physics and shamanic perspective, the concept of solipsism would be increasingly evident at the core of every being, forming the collective unconscious out of group consciousnesses. There is only one negative aspect that I can observe, as I have listed out quite a few positive aspects, such as the increased capacity survival and the creation of reality through perception, illustrated by the ganzfeld effect that leads us closer to the true nature of reality. Nevertheless, the one negative aspect is the unconscious knowledge that separation within physical reality is illusory, which can create a void that cannot be filled.

Reference:
– Fred Alan Wolf PhD
– NCBI
– Science Daily

Quantum Physics and Time-Travel with Fred Alan Wolf

Thank you very much for taking interest in my research into time-travel. It is most appreciated. Yet, it is important to remember that we are all interconnected at the very core of our consciousness, thus we, as a species, are all capable of so much more than mere mental time travel, remote viewing or prophetic dreams.

“Do not be tense, just be ready, not thinking, but not dreaming, not being set, but being flexible. It is being wholly and quietly alive, aware and alert, ready for whatever may come.” – Bruce Lee

Toward the Superconscious

5 Major Eras of Human Development

It should be noted that the major stages of evolution of human consciousness adheres to the twenty tenets, thus there exists an overall continuity toward evolution, from the physiosphere to the biosphere to the noosphere. One is able to outline predominant world views of the various epochs of human development. These stages may be summarized as archaic, magic, mythic, rational or existential that can be correlated with the major stages of technological and economic development, which are foraging, horticultural, agrarian, industrial and informational. For instance, within foraging societies, more commonly known as the hunting and gathering stage, the roles of men and women were sharply delineated and separated, in which the male performed the hunting and the women conducted the gathering and child raising. It is approximated that 97% of foraging societies followed that rigid pattern. There was a particular emphasis placed on either the male or female value sphere. Foraging societies originally emerged between a million and four thousand years ago. Certain tribal cultures at the time lived an ecologically sound life whereas others did not, which was resultant in the extinction of numerous species. Modern day lineage in any country can be traced back to their tribal ancestors, which could only be established through the beginning or agriculture to prevent the extinction of countless animal species, allowing the tribes to transcend to a new way of living as well as being, as it may. In consequence, there was a shift in status within the family unit during the horticultural epoch. 80% of the nutrition would be produced by women as the men still continued to hunt. These societies provided an equal status to men and women. Interestingly, the lineage of those tribal societies is more often than not traced through the mother. One third of these societies had female only deities, particularly the “Great Mother” in her various forms. Most of these locations possessed a horticultural background, which began around 10’000 BCE in the East and West. In the Agrarian stage, a profound shift in culture began with the introduction of the plow. Subsequently, these societies had the most highly sexually polarized structures of any known societal type. Not due to the interference of a particular gender, but the most effective form of organisation that could be applied at the time. When men began to be the sole provider of food, the deity figures in these cultures switched from female-orientated to to mainly male orientated. Over 90% of agrarian societies had primarily male deities. With the industrialisation, the first and foremost technological means were developed in order for humans to rely upon the power of machines rather than their own strength. It removed emphasis upon male strength, replacing it with gender neutral engines, allowing for the women’s movement to emerge. Gender roles no longer determined the roles within society. Although the primary cause for ecological devastation still remains. Ignorance. Whereas tribal ignorance is merely capable of inflicting limited damage, industrial ignorance can wipe our an entire quadrant of space or more. Modernity and Post-modernity become two sides of the same coin, continually striving for further technological advancement regardless of the cost. However, in order to understand post-modernity, one has to understand the fundamental Enlightenment paradigm, which is represented by the notion that you have the self or the subject on one side and the empirical sensory world on the other and the valid knowledge consists in the construction of maps of the empirical world. If both correspond with one another, the result is then viewed as truth.

The Big Three

Within the book History of Everything, Wilber describes the basic divisions of the four quadrants. Everything on the Right Hand can is described in “It” language. All on the Upper Left is described in “I” language, whereas everything on the Lower Left is defined as “We”. In sum, the “It” language is objective, neutral, encompassing mostly value-free surfaces. It is the standard for the empirical, analytical approach. In other terms, it is monological, describing objective exteriors and their interrelations, such as observable surfaces and patterns that can be viewed with the senses or their instrumental extensions. Here, information is defined as negative entropy, in which presence or consciousness is not required. However, the “I” language represents the presence of the individual or subjective awareness. All that is on the Upper left is basically described within the “I” language of interior subjectivity. For example, the subjective component of any holon is the I-component. This self becomes greater with increased depth, yet this component cannot under any circumstances be described within it “it” language, which would convert the subject into a mere object, which has led to countless dehumanizing results throughout history, especially considering consciousness control experiments with children below the age of five. Whether these objects are singular or whether they are collective strands within the web, history has educated humanity that reductionism can result in dreadful catastrophe. Subsequently, the third language, is the Lower Left, the cultural and intersubjective dimension. It is represented by the collective world view that is associated with a particular time, location and culture inhabit. These perspectives naturally evolve, thus archaic, magic, mythic and ration standspoints can be discovered here. In conclusion, at the very minimum, mankind has these three fundamental languages, which differ from one another, addressing the various domains. The failure to differentiate these languages has caused a profound amount of confusion. Thus, Wilbers concept of the Big Three is a simplified version of the four quadrants, since both Right Hand quadrants are objective exteriors or “its”. Consequently, for the sake of simplicity, the four quadrants can be dealt with as the Big Three.

In reference to the fundamental Enlightenment paradigm that reduces all “I” and “we” to its, which reduced the three languages to merely one, as a form of subtle reductionism. In essence, it reduced all of the Left Hand dimensions to their Right Hand correlates. In conclusion, according to theorists from Weber to Habermas, modernity entirely differentiated between the Big Three for the first time in history. Various domains such as morals, science, self, culture and nature were no longer syncretically fused. Yet in order to achieve integration, one should seek solutions by regressing to mythic or magic indissociation of the Big Three, where self, culture and nature were not yet differentiated. Hence, one will discover manners in which to integrate mind, culture and nature in the postmodern world. Within the spiritual themes, the notions of Buddha (spiritual realizer), Dharma (Realized truth) and Sangha (Communal realisation) begin to surface as consciousness evolution continues into the higher domains of existence.

Difference Between Stages and States of Consciousness

Wilber refers describes the basic structures of consciousness in nine variant stages, including sensation and perception (sensoriphysical), impulse and image (phantasmic-emotional), symbols and concepts (representational mind), concrete rules (rule/roles of mind), formal-reflexive, and vision-logic (integrative), following the transpersonal stages of psychic, subtle and causal. However, the highest stage of all is non-duality, although it could be argued that it is not a stage at all, yet in practice it truly becomes a stage of consciousness. With each stage of development, the individual develops a reformed view of the world. The world is transformed and can be rediscovered anew. However, the stages and states are clearly interlinked, each individual, due to the nature of the psyche, will experience them differently. As stages of development are rather similar to states of being, they are often illustrated similarly, yet their essence can differ when one examines the pathology of the individual. For instance, if dissociation is severe at certain stages of development, the processes of self-development can come to a halt. As Wilber describes it “More often than not, the self will simply limp along down the road, dissociation and all. It will continue to develop, it will continue to climb the basic structures in expanding awareness, however haltingly or however wounded. It may bleed all over the place, but it keep climbing.” This elaborates upon how an individual can be stuck at a certain stage of development, whilst continuing to expand their state of being. Yet, since the individual is literally bound at that stage, there is limited room for expansion, which in severe cases can be increasingly visible the more time progresses. Nonetheless, it is also rather simple to mistake a state of being for a stage of development or vice versa, especially if the individual is at a dubious age. For instance, if a childhood sociopath slips through the cracks of the system until teenage years, it is more often than not impossible to diagnose them as such through the means of psychoanalysis due to the similarities in behaviour during that stage of development. However, sociopathy is in essence, a state of being, a view of the world that can expand according to stage of development, yet the state of being can persist and even hinder them from attaining higher stages of development. It should be noted though that a recent study has shown that sociopathic tendencies were and are increasingly common within Zen Buddhism. Yet, Jung noted that there is a distinction between emotional detachment or non-attachment in comparison to raw sociopathic tendencies. As a side-note, sociopathic inclinations can be curved by attending to the state of being as well as stage of development simultaneously, hence there is a profound importance in distinguishing between the two conceptions.

Psychology of the Ego

There is a distinction between the true self and the false self or persona. Within the psychological stages of development, the ego forms a centre of gravity, as it may. It represents the drives, the likes, the dislikes and the desires of the individual. As the ego often functions based upon past experiences and learnt behaviour, it may hinder the individual from progressing throughout the stages of development, however it should not be viewed as a negative component of consciousness. Nonetheless, it should be noted that evolution could be viewed as a general decline of egocentrism, which expresses a general decrease of involvement of the ego within spiritual development. The ego provides a form of anchor for the self during the lifespan of the individual, at times it can even become the centre of the self. It is the preconceived identity that has been incorporated into the self on a conscious level. However, the ego is not a static component, it can mature during stages of development and can take on various roles until reaching a point of transcendence whilst the individual progresses through the stages of spiritual development. The ego within psychological development, for instance, can take on the role of satisfying certain desires or all desires no matter the cost. Yet, there is another side to that coin, which mostly occurs during the early childhood. In the words of Howard Gardner “The young child is totally egocentric, meaning not that he is incapable of thinking about himself. The egocentric child is unable to differentiate himself from the rest of the world. He has not yet separated himself from others or objects. Thus he feels that others share his pain or pleasure, that his mumblings will inevitably be understood, that his perspective is shared by all, that even animals and plants partake his consciousness.” Hence Gardner felt, there was a general decline in egocentrism during human development. Throughout the stages of spiritual development, the individual returns to a somewhat modified viewpoint of almost exactly the same conception. Nonetheless, as the child matures, it no longer treats the environment as an extension of itself. The world and the child have become differentiated, although the emotional self and the emotional world have not yet become distinctly separate. With the conceptual self, the self has become a conceptual ego that cannot yet take the role of another. Although once it can, it will. As Wilber describes it, the shift between a sociocentric to a worldcentric perspective becomes a transcendence of the shallower and a disclosure of the deeper. It becomes a battle between enlightenment and the ego, as it may.

Four Quadrants of Space

Wilber states that a part of the coming transformation will involve an alteration in consciousness and a change in institutions. Consequently, it would involve the incorporation of a new worldview, encompoassing a technological, economical base with the emergence of a new sense of self including behavioural patterns. Whether it is realised or not, the phenomenal world consists of a wide variety of holachical maps that consist of the same territory. By comparing and contrasting the differences and similarities, Wilber intended to discover the single and basic holarchy that all of them were attempting to represent. Yet, the more he was attempting this, Wilber discovered that these various holarchies possessed undeniable similarities, yet also profound differences, however the exact nature of these differences did not seem apparent at all. Eventually, he concluded that they were actually four different types of holarchies, thus four different types of holistic sequences. He began to refer to these as the four quadrants. He then arrived at the conclusion that these types of holarchies have a rather simple foundation. These four types of holarchies are in actually concerned with the inside and outside of a holon, in both its individual and collective forms. Inside, outside, singular and plural are one of the simplest number of distinctions that can be made. Consequently, these very basic features, which are present in all holons provide us with the four quadrants. All four of these types are dealing with aspects of holons, which keep aggressively and insistently showing up on the various maps around the globe. If one begins to observe the individual holon, in both its interior and exterior, which is represented by the Upper Left quadrant and the Upper Right quadrant, each level trancends and includes its predecessor. Each level includes the basics of the previous level and then adds its own distinction and defining characteristics and its own emergents. It should be noted that each of these follow the twenty tenets. The exterior aims to concern itself with appearance of the cell, atom or organism, including its evolution, whereas the interior concerns itself with internal, emotional aspects. It refers to the interior depth, which is consciousness itself. For instance, certain basic kinds of interior awareness go hand in hand with various exterior forms., such as irritability, which is the capacity to actively respond to environmental stimuli originates with cells. Sensations emerge with neuronal organisms. Perceptions begin to develop with a neural cord. Impulses, however, originate with a brain stem and basic emotions with a limbic system. This is clearly also a subjective holarchy.

Individual holons exist only in communities of similar-depth holons, Wilber refers to these as communal holons that are always associated with individual holons. This communal aspect also possesses an interior and exterior, which is referred to as the Lower Left and Lower Right. The cultural, refers to all the interior meanings, values and identities, whereas social refers to all of the exterior, material, institutional forms of the community. In a general sense, cultural refers to the shared collective worldview and social refers to the material base of that worldview. For instance, “if consciousness is depth and depth goes all the way down, then shared depth or common depth goes all the way down, hence culture goes all the way down.” In other terms, if holons share outsides, they also share insides, their culture, as it may. For example, the study of what holons can respond to is essentially the study of shared world spaces. For example, within a pack of wolves, as they possess a limbic system, the interior correlate of which is certain basic emotion. Thus, a wolf orientates itself and its fellow wolves to the world through the use of basic emotional cognitions through a sophisticated emotional signal system. Yet, anything outside that world-space is not registered. Consequently, the transformation that Wilber refers to is that of consciousness.

 Left Hand Approach Versus Right Hand Approach

From the beginning of each quest for knowledge, the various approaches toward its discovery have fallen into one or another of these two categories. Interior or exterior, which is basically a Left-handed versus Right-handed approach. All that is categorized as being on the Right hand is objects or exteriors that can be seen empirically with the senses or their extensions. They are all surfaces that can be seen. They all possess locations. It could be termed as a monological approach, as the interior irrelevant to this specific approach. It not necessary to communicate with the subject or object. One is basically reduced to an object of observation. Naturally, this scientific approach is not erroneous, but it is merely one side of the spectrum. The Left hand, however, is not observed in such a simple manner, as it is largely an interior dimension without physical locations. One therefore attempts to get closer towards the consciousness. In essence, there is no other means to reach the interior except by interpretation. This approach requires communication and expression in order to become comprehensible. Henceforth, a rather distinct difference between both approaches is that surfaces can be observed whereas depth must be interpreted. Furthermore, psychoanalysis is basically an interpretive or Left Hand approach, whilst classical behaviourism would be classified as Right Hand or empirical approach. For instance, dreams are interior events that are composed of symbols, which can only be analysed by interpretation. Freud’s notion of the talking cure on the other hand would be described as being dialogical, not monological. In conclusion, all therapies that are based upon communication are fundamentally based upon a single principle, the attempt to discover a more adequate interpretation for ones own interior depth. The Upper Right quadrant approaches, such as behaviourism or biological psychiatry at their extreme do not wish to associate themselves with interpretation, depth, interiors and intentions, their interest solely concerns itself with the observable, empirical and exterior behaviour. There is no attempt to reveal the meaning of the symptoms. The correction of the chemical imbalance of serotonin, for instance, may restore the physical balance of the body it would not relieve depression that has been interiorly caused until adequate interpretation of those regions of consciousness has been conducted.

Ascending and Descending

There are a wide variety of interpretations in regards to spiritual transformation and spiritual illumination. The experience itself would be direct and immediate. However, eventually, the individual will return to an ordinary state of consciousness, which is when the individual will begin to interpret the experience and its depth. Consequently, how this experience is interpreted will govern how the individual approaches others with this illumination, especially how the experience eventually affects the self. For instance, whether this experience was transmental or transpersonal, the individual would eventually orientate themselves according to the experience. The individual is not merely composed of spiritual components, there are also physical, psychological and emotional components and so forth, hence if the individual cannot integrate it with the rest of the consciousness, as it cannot be adequately interpreted, the experience contains no meaning, as it contains no comprehension. It should be noted that one of the basic rules of interpretation is that all meaning is context based, therefore any attempt to interpret the experience, the individual has to ensure that the context against which the individual interprets the experience is as full and complete as possible. Ideally, an all quadrant interpretation from the context of the cosmos in all dimensions would be preferable, however countless individual analyse these experiences based on the realities of simply one quadrant, which often results in the loss of the fullness of the experience.

Numerous individuals interpret these spiritual experiences basically in terms of the higher self or higher consciousness, incl. Archetypal forms or enneagram pattern and so forth, whereas they are more often than not oblivious to social and cultural aspects of the experience, becoming a “self-only” interpretation that does not adhere to the more materialistic quadrants within existence. Others prefer to interpret mostly in terms of the Lower Right quadrant. The ultimate reality becomes the empirical web of life, Gaia or the biosphere, in which all holons are reduced to being merely a strand in a web. These approaches neglect the interior states of consciousness development, reducing all Left Hand components to Right Hand strands within the empirical web. Nonetheless, all of these one quadrant viewpoints contain a moment of truth, which is that fragmented interpretations tend to abort the spiritual process itself. One may only arrive at an adequate interpretation of enlightenment, if one were to include all four quadrants. Wilber states that the intention would be to find oneself in sympathetic attunement with all aspects of the Kosmos in order to discover the truth in all four quadrants and gain a deeper perspective within the layers of existence.

During the higher or transpersonal stages, the spirit that was present throughout the entire evolutionary process becomes increasingly conscious of its own condition. It was originally subconscious, but became self-conscious and then superconscious, unfolding more of itself and enfolding more of itself at every stage. This is the path of conscious ascension. The path of enlightenment. The path of becoming… A path that does not necessarily concerns itself with this particular realm of existence, primarily it consists of compassion, kindness and understanding. Hence, a descending path represents the exact opposite, a path that mainly focuses its energies upon the physical world that it perceives. For instance, the ascending movement, is a motion from the many to one, a movement in which all forms of manifestations lead back to a single source. A groundless ground, the absolute, through the ascending path, one therefore rises to the comprehension of this. In consequence, it should be noted that Lovejoy concluded that both of these currents, ascending and descending, were united and integrated in the concepts of Plato. However, on the descended grid, salvation in the modern world is represented in the form of pure immanence. There exists no higher truth, no ascending current, nothing transcendental at all, in fact. All which is higher or transpersonal has become evil incarnate, as it opposes the descended grid and fuels the dominance of the descenders. At the beginning of the book, Wilber stated “Whereas ascenders had dominated the scene up to the Renaissance, all it requires was decisive shift in consciousness to unleash the Descending path, which burst forth from its thousand year confinement, exploded on the scene with a creative fury that would remake the entire Western world and in the process permanently substitute one broken God for another.” Conclusively, the descending path is marked by conventional, ecological ideals that pertain to the structure of the modern world, whilst it is a prime contributor to the current ecological crisis. Although evolution itself is a self-correcting agenda, it requires time to operate accordingly.

In conclusion, the difference between both paths appears clear. They are opposite directions. Ultimately, the path determines the view of the phenomenal world partially. Although the mass commonly decides the path of overall consciousness, each individual is provided with the freedom to select their own path. It may be more convenient to remain on the descending path, as the downfall is imminent within the conception, it becomes a self-fulling prophecy. Nonetheless, the individual within such a viewpoint will be confronted with unconscious aspects that they may not be prepared to face, as it differentiates from their conscious belief structures. Nonetheless, each individual will eventually have to select their path within society, as one cannot tread both paths simultaneously without severe contradictions within the personality.

Prior to Time

Wilber explains that the Seer or the Witness is prior to birth, prior to the body, prior even to the Big Bang. It never enters the stream of time. However there is a paradox here. “Prior to” actually means existing first and is therefore a temporal concept! How can this ultimate consciousness be “prior to”, “first”, “unending” etc. when those concepts can only have meaning with relation to time? The concept of the self exists within time and space. It is confined by and thus obeys by its laws and conventions. Yet, the spirit itself in non-linear in nature. It remains outside of the temporal space, as it may. However, Ken Wilbers concept gives rise to a rather significant point within human development. That which is prior the present self and that which is prior to the individual consciousness differs at the core. The source is often referred to as being outside of time itself, thus it would also be of non-local origin. Within Buddhism, the development of the seer, the inner witness becomes imminent in order to attain spiritual enlightenment or Buddhahood. This inner witness is basically a persona within the self that does not identify with present circumstances. It merely observes that which occurs in the present moment. Its response is more often than not one of curiosity. Whereas, another part of the mind may be judging or categorizing the experience, the witness perceives everything from the premise of allowing and trust in an ordered universe. It is represented by an open mental stance, not closed or contracted. In Buddhism, developing the inner observer becomes a foundational element of their teachings. Besides providing support, the observer aid in the management of stress and anger more effectively. Within a reactive state of mind, the body secrets chemicals that cause inflammation, the major cause of degenerative diseases and ageing. By using the witness/observer with its innocence, openness and trust, we can sail through adversity in a healthier way. However, it should be noted that Buddhists, Yogis and Sages spend years meditating upon that very aspect in order for it to emerge more clearly within their mindful practices, which encourage conscious living on a daily basis. Nonetheless, one of the notable differences between Hinduism and Buddhism is that Hinduism holds faith in the existence of the eternal and indestructible soul or Atman, whereas Buddhism does not believe in the concept of the soul or Atman. Most of the speculative philosophies and darshnas or various schools of philosophical thought in Hinduism attempt to answer enquiries, regarding the existence of consciousness and its development. Yet there is no unanimous opinion among them as to the nature of the soul and its relationship with the Absolute. The individual souls are stated to be different from the Absolute. However, this is not an universal standpoint. According to certain traditions, the Absolute does not exist but only individual souls, thus consisting of the Absolute as whole. Among those who believe in the existence of the Absolute, certain individuals believe that the Absolute and the individual souls are the same while others believe them to be different. Furthermore, certain traditions hold that although the Absolute and an individual soul are the same, they do have some subtle dissimilarities which cause them to be distinct. One could conclude that these perceptions are the same from one perspective and different from another. From a rather scientific standpoint, David Bohm perceived that the view of quantum theory and relativity contradicted one another. Conclusively, to him this contradiction implied that there existed a more fundamental level in the physical universe. He claimed that both quantum theory and relativity pointed towards this deeper theory, which he formulated in terms of a quantum field theory. This more fundamental level was proposed to represent an undivided wholeness and an implicate order, from which arises the explicate order of the universe as we experience it. Bohm’s proposed implicate order applies both to matter and consciousness. In addition, he suggested that it could explain the relationship between them. Mind and matter are here seen as projections into the explicate order from the underlying reality of the implicate order. In his attempts to describe the nature of consciousness, Bohm discussed the experience of listening to music. He concluded that the feeling of movement and change that makes up the experience of music derives from both the immediate past and the present both being held in the brain together, with the notes from the past seen as transformations rather than memories. The notes that were implicate in the immediate past are seen as becoming explicate in the present. Bohm viewed this as consciousness emerging from the implicate order. Bohm viewed the movement, change or flow and also the coherence of experiences, such as listening to music as a manifestation of the implicate order. He stated that he derived evidence for this from the work of Jean Piaget in studying infants. He explained that these studies show, young children have to learn about time and space, as they are part of the explicate order, but have a hard-wired understanding of movement, since it is part of the implicate order. He compared this hypothesis of hard-wiring to Chomsky’s theory that grammar is hard-wired into young human brains. Newton’s laws of motion and Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism adequately explain ones everyday, large scale classical world. However, at small scales in the quantum realm (and the boundary between the quantum and classical realms remains mysterious) objects may exist in two or more states or places simultaneously, more like waves than particles and governed by the quantum wave function. This property of multiple coexisting possibilities, known as quantum superposition, persists until the superposition is measured, observed or interacts with the classical world or environment. Only then does the superposition of multiple possibilities reduce, collapse, choose or decohere to specific, particular classical states. Conversely, quantum superpositions and reduction are used technologically in quantum computing. Whereas conventional classical computers represent digital information as bits of either 1 or 0, within quantum computers, quantum information may be represented as quantum superpositions of both 1 and 0. While in superposition, “quantum bits”, as it may, interact with others via the means of nonlocal quantum entanglement, allowing computational interactions of enormous speed and near-infinite parallelism. After the computation is performed the quantum bits are reduced, such as by environmental interaction/decoherence to specific classical bit states which constitute the solution. Quantum computing may be essential for certain tasks, yet what does it mean for an object to exist in multiple places or states simultaneously? The puzzle of quantum superposition baffled science, moreover the fate of isolated superpositions remains unresolved. One solution was put forth by Hugh Everett in his multiple worlds view. Everett’s idea was that superposition is a separation in underlying reality, that the universe at it’s fundamental level splits, or separates, and that each possibility branches off to form a new universe, a new reality. Thus, according to this view, there exist an infinite number of parallel universes corresponding to the infinite number of superposition possibilities which have ever existed. Assuming for a moment that the multiple worlds view is correct. How do we envision the separation of the universe or the individual? How do we envision the structure of reality? At rather small scales, space is not smooth, but quantized. Imagine viewing the ocean from an air-plane. The ocean surface may look perfectly smooth. However if you were in a small boat on the ocean surface you’d be tossed about by the roughness of the sea invisible from high above. Similarly as we go down in scale from the size of atoms (10-8 centimetres) empty space seems smooth until eventually scientists discover granularity at the “Planck scale (10-33 centimetres, 10-43 seconds). There are several types of descriptions of the Planck scale, such as string theory, quantum foam, and loop quantum gravity. In the context of loop quantum gravity, Penrose portrayed the Planck scale as a dynamical spider-web of spin. Taking spin as an irreducible, fundamental entity, spin networks define spectra of discrete Planck scale volumes and configurations which dynamically evolve and define space-time geometry. The amount of potential information in Planck scale spin networks is vast; each Planck scale volume, or pixel of reality may be shaped by huge variability and non-local interactions. In addition, it should be noted that their sheer number is enormous, there are roughly 10107 Planck volumes in the volume of a human brain, far greater than the number of particles in the universe. As previously mentioned, Everett’s multiple worlds view describes separations in underlying reality. For simplicity and illustration one can condense the 4-dimensional space-time with a basement level of Planck scale spin networks into 2-dimensional space-time, consisting of one spatial dimension and one time dimension. This space-time is slightly curved, in accordance with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, in a way which encodes the gravitational fields of all distributions of mass density. Each mass density, each object or particle effects a space-time curvature, albeit tiny for small objects. Consequently we can view any mass in one location as space-time curvature in a particular direction, and location of the mass in a different location as space-time curvature in another direction. Therefore quantum superposition of a particle in two locations may be considered simultaneous curvatures in opposite directions. As in the multiple worlds view, the space-time separates into two opposing curvatures, resulting in a bubble within the underlying reality. In Penrose’s view superpositions, or space-time separations, bubbles are unstable. Ultimately, they will eventually reduce or collapse to one particular curvature or the other. The instability is inherent in the properties of space-time geometry and quantum gravity, constituting an objective threshold for an isolated quantum state reduction, hence objective reduction. In the Penrose formulation, objective reduction due to the quantum gravity properties of fundamental space-time geometry occurs at a time “T” given by the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle E=h/T, in which E is the magnitude of superposition/separation, h is Planck’s constant over 2π, and T is the time until reduction. The magnitude E is related to the gravitational self-energy of the superposition and may be calculated from the amount of mass “separated from itself” and distance of separation. Since E is inversely related to T, small separations/superpositions (if isolated) will reduce at a long time T, and large separations/superpositions (if isolated) will reduce quickly. For example an isolated superpositioned electron would reduce by or only after 10 million years. A large isolated superpositioned object such as Schrödinger’s mythical one kilogram cat would reduce by or after only 10-37 seconds. The point is that Penrose objective reductions are self-organizing events occurring at the level of as well as in the medium of fundamental space-time geometry in which proto-conscious qualia may be embedded. Accordingly Penrose or events could qualify for occasions in a “wider field of proto-conscious experience”. Thus Penrose or events are potentially equivalent to Whitehead “occasions of experience”, Leibniz configurations and in some ways to Barbour’s “Nows”. Nonetheless, events require fairly stringent conditions, such as superpositions and space-time separations must be large enough to reach threshold in a brief enough time period, yet able to be isolated or protected from disruption by environmental decoherence. In quantum computers the superpositioned quantum bits are likely to be electrons of extremely low mass and hence incapable of reaching or threshold in a reasonably short time. Instead, the superposition is interrupted by decoherence when the computation is complete. Thus the threshold is never reached and quantum computers as presently envisioned will not be conscious by this criterion. On the other hand probable events may occur cosmologically due to very large scale superpositions, e.g. in neutron stars, or the early universe. Presumably, these probable events, which would occur at very fast time scales, would lack any organized information and while they may be very briefly conscious would have no cognition, intelligence or memory, which in essence is rather similar to the concept of limited consciousness. Pieces of information that are maintained within the regions of the unconscious, whilst the conscious mind remains aware of only very few bits and pieces. According to Penrose, outcomes selected in probable events are chosen neither randomly nor logarithmically, but non-computably, i.e. influenced by “Platonic values” embedded in Planck scale geometry. As probable selections are non-computable, or non-algorithmic, they are irreversible from the standpoint of classical information. Thus each probable event ratchets forward classical information in space-time, effectively creating conscious perception of a forward flow of time. A sequence of probable events or conscious moments occurring in the brain could therefore give rise to the familiar stream of consciousness. As the previous metaphor of time and space is gradually concluded, the nature of consciousness is unravelled and the concept of time appears less elusive than previously conceived. Yet it is also a widely believed fact that one can experience all of time occurring at once, from a perspective that is outside of space-time itself. A timeless space, as it may. Fred Alan Wolf describes this as a subtle, transpersonal domain that does not adhere to space-time in the manner that this plane of existence does. In accordance with Wilbers viewpoint, the individual consciousness may be bound by memories of life after life after life, once one reaches the deepest layers of the self, one shall discover that which is beyond all. Beyond temporal or spacial confinements. Beyond priority. Beyond fabrics of the phenomenal world. To that which is beyond perception. That which even is beyond existence itself.

Yoga Of Time Travel

(Inspired by the literary works of Fred Alan Wolf PhD)

Yoga consists of a system that is partially philosophy and partially science. According to Hindu philosophy, the system of yoga is divided into two principal parts. Hatha yoga, which mainly concerns itself with physiology in order to establish health as well as the training of mind and body. The other however, Raja yoga provides the means to gain control over the mind. Yoga as a practice and system implies a concept of time that is summed up by the term Samsara. It signifies the conditioned existence as well as boundedness…the yoking of spirit to spacial and temporal confinement. Yet, above all, Samsara represents time. George Feuerstein stated that the literal meaning of Samsara is “flowing together”. A perpetual flux of things and events producing consequences of causal relationship. This “flowing together” has a counterpart of quantum physics and is essential as to how the mind constructs time and the appearance of objective events. Yet, Samsara refers to a notion that the Western mind with a linear view of time does not conceive, which the idea of the wheel of existence…That the soul experiences endless rounds of birth, life, death and rebirth, set in motion by causal links created in past lives. From a quantum physics viewpoint, these cycles can be experienced by the time traveller through recognition of the role played by the ego-mind to anchor experience, literally binding it into time providing an active focal point or ego. However, Samsara is also a synonym for Maya or illusion. The persistent beliefs that tie one to space and time, thus one participates in the flow of these perpetual cycles rather than to seek an escape from them. Conclusively, this kind of perennial philosophy proposes an infinite, unchanging reality hidden behind the illusion of ceaseless change. It lingers at the core of every being and is the substratum of the personality.
The parallel-universe paradigm states that a universe can possess identical copies of itself without the conscious knowledge of its inhabitants. In effect, each time an individual makes an observation, the universe would split into as many possible outcomes as the individual could witness from their one observation. For instance, when you flip a coin and observe it landing, the world splits into two parts. A “heads” universe and a “tails” universe. Well, at least you’ve won somewhere, right…

In summary, modern physics has proven that time and space are not as separable as originally conceived, in fact, it is ones perception of them as separate that is an illusion. As a consequence of Albert Einsteins proposal in the year of 1905, which he later named the spacial theory of relativity. Although the Western viewpoint of the matter may be rather mechanical and perhaps too linear to adequately assess the subject. Einsteins seminal paper, also published in 1905, on the electromagnetics of moving bodies, although widely frowned upon became a fast step in the progression of understanding space-time. Conclusively, his equations had enabled one to comprehend how two observers, moving relatively to each other in a smooth and unaccelerated manner, could come to differing conclusions in regards to the when and where of an event that they had both observed. As physicists began to gradually accept that space and time are inseparable, the term proper time began to be developed. It describes the time experienced by a clock travelling along a space-time trajectory when compared with the time shown by other clocks that are not and were not travelling on the trajectory. Subsequently, space-time geodesics mark the most profound proper time between events when compared with any other trajectories having the same endpoints. However, once one leaves behind the scientific outlook on the matter, one arrives at the inference that within the true self, there is no space-time. If all is one and all is an illusion, then that which is considered to be “out there”would in actuality be situation in one location at all times. In view of the concept of psychophysics, in an article published around the time of 1979, Ben Libet observed a number of patients post-operatively with the aid of implanted electrodes, which eventually led to his paper of subjective referral. For instance, Libet discovered that human beings are mostly unconscious. That the choices that are made and the sensation that are responded to originate within the unconscious. As a matter of fact, during his experiments associated with the temporal referral, he carefully applied physical stimuli to the brains of numerous patients. Henceforth, it was found out that the delay between the individuals conscious awareness and external stimuli can last up to half a second. It was then argued by Libet that the individual may not even be fully consciously aware of their response at the time, nor the actual reasons why. Furthermore, he concluded that the reaction is faster than the perception. Conclusively, that which is considered to be the present moment may appear is if it moves unidirectionally forward in space-time, however this would only be probable, if one applies a linear perspective. Yet, within the nature of mythical time, all events in the past and future are equally present. They may appear as events of chronological time, however it is merely the nature of consciousness to experience the phenomenal world in a progression of moments.

It is a widely held misconception that the laws of physics prevent time travel, however, in truth they may actually require it. Although one may easily fall into circular reasoning, the paradoxes do not usually lead to logical inconsistency. For instance, if a future action (A) leads to a consequence (action B) in the past that prevents that action A from taking place, then how could action A occur to begin with? This type of inconsistency paradox is also referred to as the grandfather paradox. Although classical physics really has no problem with events appearing in a reversed time order, which arises as the classical physicist insists that time and space are immutable. In addition, the autonomy principle and the grandfather and creativity paradoxes constitute an unstated assumption called the chronology tenet concludes that one cannot travel backward through time. This assumption was constructed out of a rather narrow common-sense viewpoint. It should be noted that according to that outlook, travel into the future would not violate the viewpoint, whereas travel to the past for even the briefest of times seemingly does. However, in essence, time-travel into the past does not violate the laws of causality, as previously expected. Yet, in contrast to classical physics, in which a single outcome of any experiment is determined by the implicit laws of causality implied, all outcomes of any experiment are predicted to actually occur each weighed by a probability. The possession of multiple outcomes, as it may, is a significant feature of quantum physics. However, it is that which happens to these alternatives after an observed outcome that remains in question. The reason would be that each time an observation occurs, the observer splits and enters into each of the six world predicted. In addition, the presence of parallel universes and closed timelike lines actually aid in the resolution of paradoxes in the chronology tenet. For instance, in the grandfather paradox, if the bright young scientist could make use of a closed timelike line to go backward in time, as she would appear in the past, the universe would split into two nearly identical copies. Instead of unconnected parallel universes, each containing its own paradoxical closed time-like line and a copy of the time-traveller. There would be two parallel universes threaded by a single closed time-like line. Conclusively, the paradoxes do eventually resolve themselves, often by construction two version of a reality, which would seem almost identical.

Each parallel world contains a single future event that connects with the present event through the modulation effect. This is seemingly how parallel worlds become separate. Once the modulation takes place, the parallel worlds split off and no longer interfere with each other. It should be also be stated that if both, the possibility wave and the complex conjugate wave, are a part of physical reality, time would not merely be a one way stream. Additionally, it is possible for the brain to naturally tune in with the future and resonate with the past. And for most, it already occurs within the mind without conscious realization. Those that are known as visionaries may as well be those who are able to tune into other worlds, besides the current one. The past and future are merely reference points on a larger, much more complex amount of timelines. For instance, the present moment can be defined as the sequence of adjacent events that are most meaningfully connected time wave clash, as it may.

Nonetheless, the phenomenal world as it is perceived depends on the subtle relationship between the possibility wave and a probability curve. Possibility waves determine when and with what likelihood events occur, also they are able to reinforce as well as cancel one another out, thus affecting that which is perceived. The “odds”, which would be displayed as probability curves, which determine the probabilities of the events in question. In consequence, probability curves arise when two related possibility waves multiply each other. Through this process, time itself emerges, as do ones immediate experiences. The causal relationship that is observed between events also arise from this deeper order, in which the possibility waves reside. Conclusively, if one were to attempt to merge with corresponding times in each and every moment of ones time bound existence, there would be no sense of time for that particular individual. Although it is the true state of our existence, timelessness according to countless spiritual doctrines, one has to gradually attain that state of being in order to come closer to the true nature of the phenomenal world. In addition, one may be capable of attaining glimpses of other existences, dimensions or parallel worlds, yet it would still be increasingly difficult to discover the location of the sequence of events. However, as the psyche of each individual differs, each individual responds differently to the vibrations of the past or future. Although they are most likely constant, each individual copes differently. Yet, Wolfs observation on the matter appears highly accurate, illustrating the fact that the future in truth ripples backwards through time, affecting the present, and thus affecting the individual. As well as the past rippling forward. Nonetheless, the visionary thus focuses on a constant amount of progress in order to attain the envisioned goal, whereas others that may be lacking that type of vision may struggle to cope without a similar type of passion towards a particular form of achievement.

The natural course of possibility waves, without the intervention of consciousness to construct a focused point, is to move from a more focused to a less focused pattern. Hence, the perception of reality appears to blur and spread out after an instance of focus. In consequence, this process can be used to the individuals advantage. Once a living being lets go, they unfocus and free up space that had been previously filled with judgements, expectations and so forth. The observer and the observed become one. Moreover, once an object is freed, as it may, the possibilities associated with it increase at any particular location in space-time. The unfocused object spreads out, which means that one is no longer seeking possible positions that the object may hold in the future. Overall, the abilities to focus and to let go constitute the basic binary activity of conscious life. Through attention and repetition, one gains knowledge. It is the manner by which the mind functions. Furthermore, the individual can learn to let go of memories or focus on possibilities, allowing a specific events to come into being. Nonetheless, it should be noted that through the practice, time is actually created. Although in technicality, it is at all times created by the mind.

Throughout the ancient teachings, it appears as if God, Krishna or “All That Is” requires a large number of focal centres, perhaps even an infinite amount, in order to awaken from the trap of material existence. In addition, it is stated that the material existence or illusion of existence merely continues due to the bondage of desire. An illusion that appears as the divine play, connecting objective time and subjective mind. However, the entrapment of the mind of the absolute does not only stabilize the universe, yet is also enables the Mind to experience itself as other beings. It provides a common awareness of the physical world, providing all living beings with a sense of objective time and space. Time becomes that which it is perceived to be through common experiences. The choice that is eventually made by the individual are displayed as possibility waves that exist in a sub-spacetime realm, moving around and existing in several locations simultaneously throughout past and future. Furthermore, when consciousness acts, possibility waves travelling backward through time modulate waves travelling forward through time. This modulation results in the squaring process that yields a probability curve, which appears as entirely logical within the physical world. In conclusion, the Yoga Sutras describe that the pure soul awareness of a true yogi is, in essence, changeless and non-moving, its form having accomplished its own intelligence, assuming the identity of knowing. Time, the sequence of modifications of the ego mind, likewise terminates, giving place to the Eternal Now. In consequence, total liberation becomes possible when three qualities of matter (light, inertia and vibration) no longer exercise any hold over the yogi as well as having discharged the four-fold aims or duties of self, family, society and country. Once established in ones own true nature, the power of pure soul awareness, only then shall one truly experience the silent truths of the universes.